Scientifc Journal of Klaipeda State College

FORMATION OF URBAN GREEN AREAS (2010 1 (7))

ISSN  1822-9778 print / ISSN 2029-4549 online


   



Articles:



1.

Milda Aidukaitė

Historic Greenery – Our Cultural Heritage Live

    Lithuanian law regulating historic greenery protection and restoration, maintenance requires professional tree condition assessment. Rich park character interpretation allows to preserve the authenticity of heritage sites and to ensure the proper use of the area. Historical Park concept is associated with applied Dendrological historical research. The latter helps to clarify understanding of tree species distribution in the Park, to identify structure on dendrology aspect. The work is the continuity of the design of the park for further direction, sensing the spirit of the park.

Our cultural heritage live requires a sensitive approach and a coherent continuous professional work in order to maintain its valuable properties, so that we can know it and be there.


2.

Ligita Baležentienė

Vegetative Propagation of Bougenvillea glabra Choisy by

Semi Hardwood Cuttings

     Bougainvillea or paper flower (Bougainvillea glabra Choisy) is one of the most attractive species used for interior design. It has shiny green, slightly hairy leaves and magenta or else coloured bracts.

Bougainvillea, a native of Brazil is an evergreen, climbing woody vine. Tiny white flowers usually appear in clusters surrounded by colourful “papery” bracts, hence the name ‘paper’ flower. Single and double flower forms are available. The woody trunk tends to be twisted and young thin stem has sharp thorns and dark green leaves. In native conditions Bougainvillea can be easily grown as a hedge, an arch or a tree on the ground and in pots. Bougainvillea available in a variety of species is ideal for bonsai.

Planting Bougainvillea may be grown from root cuttings and branch cuttings. Plant could be used for vegetative propagation by softwood cuttings or hardwood cuttings in order to produce more planting material in a short time. On purpose to improve roots forming hardwood cuttings were treated with different growth regulators.


3.

Diana Baravykaitė, Regina Repšienė

The Variety and Condition of Green Plantations in the Areas of Faculties of

Klaipeda State College

    An inventory of green spaces of Faculties of Klaipeda State College identified 72 taxa of ligneous plants and 42 taxa of ornamental herbaceous plants. Most taxa of ligneous plants (32 taxa) and ornamental herbaceous plants (24 taxa) are growing in the green space of the Faculty of Technology. The green space of Landscape Architecture Department of Technology Faculty distinguishing diversity of ligneous plants, too. Here are growing 29 taxa of ligneous plants. In the green space of the Faculty of Technology there are 95.4% trees and 100% shrubs of a good condition. In the green spaces of Faculty of Health Sciences and Pedagogical Faculty there are mainly ligneous plants in a satisfactory and in a poor condition– relatively 26.8% and 23.6%.


4.

Aleksandra Barkauskienė, Rasa Skarbalienė, Jurga Kučinskienė

Green Roofs and the Quality of Environment

   The article discusses the importance of green roofs to the quality of environment, their advantages in the growth of urban areas. The main roof garden "task" is to reduce urban activities, to create a healthier living environment for human, re-built green areas. Green roofs examined in four aspects: ecological, construction-cost, aesthetic and psychological. There is review of the experience of Western countries, in the sprout of public, residential and industrial building roofs.


5.

Valerija Baronienė

Urban Tree Collection in Dubrava Arboretum: the First Steps

In 2006 Dubrava Arboretum has begun to collect trees suitable for urban plantings – cultivars small-to-medium in size, with solid pest resistance and tolerance for environmental extremes. The aim is to examine and to evaluate the trees in our climatic conditions. After some years of growing and evaluation this collection will serve as the fund of propagating material for nurseries. The article reviews the first results of this work.


6.

Erika Brinkytė

The Analysis of Green Areas System in Šiauliai City

Green areas and their systems determine general city view and structure. It can cause city space structure, complement compositions of buildings architecture, create urban green areas and improve people’s environment. But the problems come when there are not enough greenery or their quality are not good. Here is given information on distribution of forests and separate green areas in Šiauliai city, territory of parks and square, its density and conditions are surveyed here too.


7.

Dalia Butkienė, Kazimieras Matiušinas

Development of Landscape Direction Specialists Competencies in the Aspect of Integration to Labour Market

    Professional activity perspectives of Kaunas College prepared Landscape study field specialists in the aspect of professional preparation perfection are discussed in this article. Importance of professional competencies and qualification to educational content perfection by emphasizing their importance to successful carrier is discussed in this article.

This article is focused on landscape field specialists matching to market demands analysis and their preparation problems in the aspects of theoretical reasoning and practical researches. Researches results have disclosed specialists’ competences criteria and their adaptation in labour market. High motivation of study and profession selection, good level of employment, positive employers’ evaluation and opportunity to create business in chosen professional activity field shows that this study field in the future will have tendency of development and improvement.


8.

Giedrė Čeponytė, Vaiva Deveikienė

Inventory of Greenery and Establishment of their Digital Data Basis in

Vilnius City

    The article presents an experience process of Vilnius greenery inventory program preparation. Authors of the article present a short survey of juridical and technical preconditions; material of the technical task formation and presentation; organizational, technological and managerial aspects of the city’s greenery inventory. This case study will be useful to methodological approach formation in future.


9.

Stasė Dapkūnienė, Gitana Štukėnienė, Regina Juodkaitė, Ona Motiejūnaitė

Lithuanian Dendrological Values – the National Plant Genetic Resources

    This article contains information on Lithuanian Dendrological values of 650 trees, which are granted by national plant genetic resources status of incremental trees and tree groups in the category, pointing out their differences from the botanical natural heritage objects.


10.

Demidov A. S. , Potapova S. A.

The Role of the Main Botanical Garden Named After N. V. Tsitsin RAS in Conservation of Natural Complex of Moscow City

    The role of the Main Botanical Garden named after N. V. Tsitsin RAS in conservation of natural complex of Moscow city is presented. The Garden’s collection is the base of scientific investigation and enrichment the list of plants used for the greenery.


11.

Steponas Deveikis, Vaiva Deveikienė

Public Green Spaces in Real Property Cadastre and Register System

     The article discusses issues pertaining to the cadastre and register of public spaces and primarily green zones. A brief overview is given on the main references and databases, as well as previous publications. The article emphasizes the importance of the cadastre to public property objects, and analyses some practical examples, which have been selected  by the authors during examination of the situation in situ and in visu as well as on the cadastral maps and in the databases of cities, primarily Vilnius and Utena. The cadastre and register of public property objects are of great importance to further management, development and maintenance of such objects, and cultural heritage preservation.


12.

Indrė Gražulevičiūtė-Vileniškė

The Influence of Green Public Area on the Social Environment of

Urban Center: Case of Peace Gardens in Sheffield

    The problems of creation and functioning of green public spaces, such as the lack of properly equipped public greenery, abandonment or commercialization of public spaces, disregard of social function of public green spaces, observed in Lithuanian cities encourage analyzing the experience of foreign countries in this field. The aim of this article is to determine the aspects of the influence of public green spaces on the social environment of the city and to detail them using the case study of Peace Gardens, a newly created public space in Sheffield (UK).


13.

Petras Grecevičius, Algimantas M. Olšauskas, Jonas Genys, Ramunė Staševičiūtė,

Edvardas Riepšas, Vytautas Dubra, Akvilė Kilijonienė

Problems and Improving Aspects of Landscape Architecture Specialist

Training in Lithuania


   In Lithuania in recent decades the problems connected with a landscape design, reconstruction of parks, culture of an urban landscape are observed. There are no suitably established green areas; influence of public spaces and social green areas on quality of aesthetical expression and functionality of architectural environment, urban spaces, recreational, residential and other territories is ignored. All this forces to explore these problems more detail in this sphere. One of the major problems is the problem of preparation of landscape design experts. By 2010 in Lithuania in the list of study programmes there was no study programme of landscape architecture. Universities and colleges, understanding necessity of training of such experts, searched for the decision of the given problem. One of the ways was to prepare the study programme of landscape architekture. However, the given study programme is not recognized in Europe and in the rest of the world. Lack of professionals has influenced a worsening quality of residential environment. Therefore the object of this research is to improve the quality of preparation of experts on landscape design and ensure high quality of residential environment in the future.


14.

Banga Grigaliūnaitė, Vidmantas Ulevičius, Vilma Meškauskienė, Evaldas Navys

Pollution Effects on Lime Plant Health of the City of Vilnius

     In lime trees, growing in pedestrian zone in Antakalnis, in lawns in Žirmunų, Kareivių Streets leaves necrosis was 61–95%, 3 defolation class, in Savanorių Avenue – 4 class, Architektų and other Streets below – 1–2 defolation class. In the lowest emission zone in Architektų Street and Verkiai park the defolation class was 1. Dry deposition of pollutants produces different effect, in some cases, they reduce the spread of fungal diseases, and low levels of contamination (14.46 mgS/m2, 2.44 mgN/m²) affect the fastidioses agents of limes leaves (Verkiai park).


15.

Laimutis Januškevičius, Jūratė Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė

Greenery in Former Manor Places and Their Arrangement

   In 1999-2009 200 parks in former manor places were explored and evaluated. 107 historic parks have mixed (53,5%), 55 parks (27,5?) have geometric and 38 parks (19?) have irregular structure of the plan. 350 species and cultivars of introduced ligneous plants are registered (95 are Pinophyta, 255 are Magnoliophyta) which belong to 39 families and 93 genera (Pinophyta – 4 families and 11 genera, Magnoliophyta – 35 and 82). It is established that the first steps of renovation of the historic park should be the basic clear-out and maintenance works and the main attention has to be paid to the reconstruction of the spatial structure of the park. Well maintained parks live and retain features of authenticity for 200–300 years but every generation has the right to arrange the park satisfying it needs without compromising the future generations to meet their own needs and not decreasing the cultural value of the park.


16.

Marina Jurkane

Želdynų fizinis ir psichoemocinis poveikis žmogaus būsenai

  Šiame darbe pateikta trumpa gamtos ir sodo poveikio žmogaus sveikatai ir gerovei apžvalga, nagrinėjama, kaip panaudoti šį poveikį gydymo ir reabilitacijos procese, atsižvelgiant į landšafto architektūrą ir ekologinę psichologiją.

Ypatingas dėmesys skiriamas želdynų svarbai gydant stresą. Pateikta gydomojo ir terapeutinio sodo definicija, apibūdinti gydomosios aplinkos kūrimo principai, pateikti tarptautinės patirties pavyzdžiai.


17.

Gundega Lināre

Tendencies of Development of Green Territories of Small Cities of Latvia

     Historical development urban environment in town planning is observed. It is established, that more progressive and favourable for inhabitants are principles, which were put into practice by famous Latvian architects more intensive in the studying process. For rising of landscape quality there is need to educate society by mass media through popularization of „good practise” in landscaping, to turn its attention to negative and positive examples in town building.


18.

Regina Malakauskienė, Justas Šilinas

The Formed Opportunities of Application of Mountain Pines

(Pinus mugo Turra) in a Context of Greenery of Multi-storey Houses


    Greenery of balconies is one of the ways to integrate the plants into the context of multi-storey house facade, however, a new architectural stylistics, interior decoration materials require responsibility on an account of certain factors and search for new compositions of the plant and expression. Article contains the analysis of plant application possibilities and methods of environment harmonization. Formed opportunities of Mountain Pine (Pinus mugo Turra) application in residential apartment balconies, loggias, and open stairwells are valued.


19.

Rita Mikaliūnaitė, Aušra Daugėlienė

Hedges in Green Areas of Meškuičiai Village

    One of the green plantation type is hedges which are not only the plants, but also protects and restricts the territory, separates the plots one from another, fides from the strangers and of course, decorates the houses. Research with plant species, their ornamentality and tolerance to low temperature growing in hedges in Meškuičiai village individual places were done in 2008-2009. Evergreen plant – Thuja occidentalis and deciduos plants – Cotoneaster lucidus, Ligustrum vulgare, Caragana arborescens and Crataegus monogyna are comonly growing in village hedges.

20.

Inese Naburga - Jermakova

The Influence of Green Plantings on the Diversity of Bio-Environment

  The theme of this article is based on the materials of the last conference “Eurogard V Botanic Gardens in the age of the climate changes”. Its main idea is restriction of using potential invasive alien species for directed introduction and development of ways to identify current invasive species to predict and anticipate future invasions and to do corresponding actions to control or limit them on the national or regional levels. The alien plants invasion in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland based on literature sources and practical research works in the Botanical Garden of University of Latvia is analyzed.

The data of about 45 alien taxa of Poland, 18 of Latvia and 12 of Lithuania cultivated species escaped from ornamenting gardening in a local flora or having a tendency of escaping and wilding is demonstrated. The list with 36 taxa of perennials from the Botanical Garden of University of Latvia collections which have a potential of spreading/escaping to wild is formed. According to the given list Corydalis nobilis, Crocus specious, Heliopsis helionthoides var. scabra, Montia sibirica, Smilacina racemosa, Smilacina stellata, Tellima grandiflora are not recommended for wide using in greenery, especially on preserved natural territories.


21.

Rita Nekrošienė

Performance of Urbanised Ecosystems

   This study contains data on urban ecosystems and their features, and natural ecosystems. Every natural ecosystem features a specific structure (i.e., the steady framework of external and internal interactions). Conditions for the existence of ornamental plants, especially for those that have been introduced, thus being different than for natural flora, are ensured by human practical activity. In urban ecosystems  the biotic circulation is accelerated and simplified due to economic activities. In turn, stability of circulation is reduced, and ecological optimisation is more complex.


22.

Regimantas Pilkauskas

Dituva Allotment Gardens in Suburb of Klaipėda

     This article is about allotment gardens as a new type of parks and gardens. They are created to improve living conditions of the citizens of densely developed cities. The establishment of Dituva allotment gardens is discussed as the main example. The possibilities of reconstruction of allotment gardens into a mixed residential and allotment urban structure are considered.


23.

Rudevich M. N., Garanovich I. M., Grinkevich V. G.

Evaluation of Landscape, Decorative and Functional Significance of a Green Area ‘Sevastopol Park’ in Minsk

  The article treats information about as green areas are never finished as, let’s say, buildings are, planning and creating of green areas as well as their maintenance is a continuous and complicated process. Maintaining a stable state of city green areas in conditions of a high anthropogenic load of a big city is possible only when the needs and the possibilities of its natural ecosystem are taken into account and only on the basis of studying and analyzing the previous theoretical and practical experience in the fields of ecology, green areas development and landscape design.


24.

Marija Samuitienė, Meletėlė Navalinskienė

The Agents of Viral Diseases Affecting Limonium Mill. Plants

    Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) have been isolated from Limonium latifolium (Sm.) Kuntze plants expressing symptoms typical for viral diseases. Viruses have been identified by the methods of test-plants, electron microscopy and DAS-ELISA. Both viruses are distributed worldwide, have a wide host range including ornamental species. Means to control spreading of agents of viral diseases are described.


25.

Mariana Smona

Apželdinimo ir skirtingų tipų viešųjų erdvių aplinkos sąveikos analizė

     Straipsnyje apibūdinami skirtingi socialinės aplinkos ir želdinių sąveikos tipai, apžvelgiant penkis pagrindinius visuomeninių miesto erdvių tipus Rygos ir Ventspilio miestuose bei Latvijos universiteto botanikos sode. Apibendrinant stebėjimų rezultatus galima padaryti išvadas dėl želdinių estetinio poveikio ir žmogaus elgsenos modelio koreliacijos ir jos poveikio žaliųjų teritorijų būklei. Taip pat pastebėta, kad ribotas priėjimas prie kai kurių miesto želdinių tipų nėra lemiamas faktorius, apibūdinantis galimybę apsaugoti jų labiausiai pažeidžiamus elementus.


26.

Vilija Snieškienė, Kęstutis Žeimavičius, Antanina Stankevičienė

Newly Planted Street Tree in Lithuania

    In many streets in Lithuania it is time to change green plantings which were planted 60–80 years ago. Up until now local species or long time ago introduced species trees were used for these green plantings. Part of these species fit in, but some of them were unsuitable for green planting. Now some of Acer, Aesculus, Fagus, Platanus, Robinia, Sorbus and Tilia species cultivars adapted for growing in cities plantings, which were brought from abroad, are being planted in Lithuanian cities. Their growth and adaptation to new conditions will be observed.


27.

Antanina Stankevičienė, Vilija Snieškienė

Microscopic Fungi in the Environment of Rhododendron L.

    Recently in Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University in the sector of dendrology science are grown 289 taxons of Rhododendron genus plants. The aim of our work was to isolate and identify microscopic fungi from the rhizosphere, leaves, roots and stems of Rhododendron with over ground part injuries.


28.

Valda Šneiderienė, Aldona Zita Pikturnienė

Evaluation of Artificial Lighting for Green Area in Klaipeda Residential District No. VI


    In this article the general provisions of artificial lighting installation for urban green areas are disputing. Condition of urban territories lighting of Klaipeda city and its improvement programs are handling. Test results of artificial lighting condition of green area in residential district No. VI of Klaipeda city, situated among Smilteles, I.Simonaitytes, Reikjaviko, Zardininku Streets and Statybininku Avenue, are analyzing.


29.

Gitana Štukėnienė, Stasė Dapkūnienė

Gladioli (Gladiolus L.),  Collection of the Vilnius University Botanical Garden

  Several thousand gladioli cultivars have been created in the world. In Lithuania gladioli are the most popular plants with flower breeders who successfully carry out selection with these flowers. At present in the collection of Vilnius University Botanical Garden there are 125 gladioli cultivars of both foreign and Lithuanian origin. Gladioli are valued for the cultivars of blossom colours, simple growing and fast propagation. The diversity of the gladioli blossom’s colours is huge – from a snow-white to dark brown colour. Here the gladioli were appriciated to their morphological characteristics and decorative qualities.


30.

Rita Šulskienė

Grünfläche Der Bildungsanstalten Der Stadt Siauliai

     Im Artikel spricht man über die Pflanzen an den Bildungsanstalten. Es wurde eine Analyse der Grünanlagen der Bildungsanstalten gemacht, man hat sich geklärt, welche Pflanzen in den Grünanlagen gepflanzt werden, welche Grünanlagen das Territorium bilden.Es ist zu bemerken, dass es sowohl manche Mangel als auch Vorteile bei der Pflege der Territorien gibt.Im Artikel werden die Ziele der Ordnung der Grünanlagen ausgelegt und auch die Probleme ihrer Bewachsung ausgelegt. Es wurde die Inventarisation der Pflanzen gemacht und geklärt, in welchen Grünflächen sie gepflanzt werden. Um sich über die Auswahl der mehrjährigen Blumen klarzumachen, wurde es sich auf das Angebot der Auswahl der Feldblumen Versuchsstation gestützt.


31.

Andreas Thon, Wolfram Kircher, Ina Thon

Chances and Opportunities to Reduce Maintenance Costs by Adjusting Irrigation Systems with Focus on Soil Characters and Plant Demands. Quality Management Ensures Durable and Sustainable Operation

     Automatic irrigation systems can support the vitality and improve the aesthetical value of green spaces. Optimizing irrigation systems by adjusting irrigation amounts and irrigation intervals by using on-site related factors like soils and plant water demands contribute to minimize the input of water. Simple calculations of irrigation amount and quality management methods can reduce maintenance costs.


32.

Andreas Thon, Wolfram Kircher, Ina Thon

Constructed Wetlands on Roofs as a Module of Sanitary Environmental Engeneering to Improve Urban Climate and Benefit of the On Site Thermal Effects

     Research Projects and own research show high potential of Roof Gardens for water retention, water purification ability and on Site Thermal effects. Constructed wetlands as a part of sanitarty environmental management help to balance intense rainfalls and improve insulation of buildings while increasing air humidity and lowering air temperature in dense Urban areas.


33.

Jonas Vaidelys, Donatas Misiūnas

Evaluation of Parterres in Aspect of Artistical Expression Means in South and Southern West Cities of Lithuania

     The paper presents analysis of parterres of Vilkaviškis, Marijampolė. Druskininkai, Alytus and Varėna cities.

There are analyzed flower compositions in parterres of South and Southern West cities of Lithuania in aspect of artistic expression means. The main attention is paid to flower arrangement by unity of multiple element forms of parterre, proportions, unity of arrangement with environment, use of contrasts and accents, color-scheme, arrangement center, rhythm of an arrangement. These criterions are not often included into analysis of parterre. In this point of view, the research is original.


34.

Judita Varkulevičienė

Plants of Peperomia Ruiz. et Pav. Genus Use in Interior

     Information on Peperomia species growth potential in the interior is discussed in this article. During the period since 1997 till 2009 research were made in greenhouse in Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University and in interior. There were studied 41 taxon tropic plants. Longevous analysis allows diagnosing optimal growth conditions and offering good plants assortment. Peperomia growth limit factors are these: 1) light, especially in winter time, 2) humidity in interior also in winter time. 


35.

Judita Varkulevičienė, Rita Maršelienė

Specific Lilies Use in Green Plantation

    During the period since 2000 till 2009 9 lilies species were analysed in Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University. Just Lilium martagon L. naturally grows in Lithuania. Growth conditions, resistance of negative winter factors and diseases were analysed and reproduction methods and their intensivity were appreciate. Decorative characteristic, resistance winter frost, diseases and reproduction tests results show that 6 lilies species are suitable for green plantations. L. martagon can grow in shade, in the field with vernal little bulbous flowers and willd ornamental perennial plants.