Scientifc Journal of Klaipeda State College


ISSN  1822-9778 print / ISSN 2029-4549 online




Jonas Abromas, Vesta Sinušaitė, Enrika Tamošauskienė, Kristina Vintilaitė,

Evelina Jakutytė

The Recreation Environment of New Blocks of Flats in Residential

Districts of Klaipeda City

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     There is discussed the recreation environment of new blocks of flats in residential districts of Klaipėda city in this article. There were assessed the main residential districts of new blocks of flats: “Dragūnai”, “Žolynai”, “Dangės vingis”, “Gandrališkės”, “BIG 2”/ “Arkada”. The analysis of residential districts environment and the population survey were accomplished between October and November in 2010. The purpose of the survey was to ascertain the opinion of population about the quality of present residential districts environment.


Milda Aidukaitė

Small But Great Landscape Architectural Elements

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     Presence of small landscape architectural elements in dimensional structures inspires to experience different senses, actions or making various studies of the area. These elements bring some aesthetics, ideological and political value, meet cultural and practical needs, and encourage activity in one or another aspect. That is very important elements of landscape architecture, which finalize the connections of dimensional structures in artistic, functional and ideological viewpoints. This article consists of analysis of geographic aspects of landscape architectural elements, how they reflect the different periods of time and style. Also it proves the importance of shape, size, material, colour and location of the small landscape architectural elements.


Alvija Barysaitė, Lina Davidavičiūtė, Simona Mikalauskaitė, Edita Serapinaitė

Žemaitijos dvarų mažoji architektūra ir jos ateitis

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     Straipsnyje pateikta informacija apie istorinės Žemaitijos dvarų mažosios architektūros būklę, analizuojami jų kokybiniai ir kiekybiniai rodikliai, išsaugojimo perspektyvos. Dvarų sistema tiesiogiai sietina su Lietuvos valstybingumo ir žemės ūkio raida, tradicijomis. Dvarų aplinka – labai svarbus Žemaitijai ir visai Lietuvai kultūrinis palikimas, kurį būtina išsaugoti ateities kartoms. Šiuo metu Lietuvos dvarų mažosios architektūros būklė yra bloga. Straipsnyje apžvelgiamos dvarų priklausinių (mažosios architektūros) esminės problemos, pateikiamos jų išsaugojimo perspektyvos


Irina Bondorina, Miko Krstev

The Grafted Ornamental Plants in Gardening (Greening) Cities

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     The article deals with the possibilities of using new decorative forms of plants received with the help of grafting in cities greening.


Laima Česonienė, Remigijus Daubaras

Investigation of Actinidia kolomikta Peculiarities for Ornamental Plantings

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     Seasonal development, growth, and phenotypic diversity of Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim.) Maxim. were ascertained. The vegetation period of the investigated cultivars and clones continued from 176 to 188 days. Spring as the only critical period for this species was determined under the climatic conditions in Lithuania. Cultivars and clones differed in an average of mixed and vegetative shoot length, which determines the luxuriant of plants. The informative peculiarities were selected for phenotypic characterization of A. kolomikta. The most atractive female cultivars and male clones were selected and recommended for landscape gardening.


Indrė Gražulevičiūtė – Vileniškė, Irina Matijošaitienė

Role of Green Spaces Developing Social and Ecological Environment in Historic Urban Centers

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     The 20th century brought the necessity of modernization of many historic urban centers. Post-war modernizations were characterized by drastic interventions: green spaces were created demolishing historic buildings and altering valuable urban structures. The idea that ecological, social, and economic problems in urbanized areas should be solved in an integrated way becomes widespread. This justifies the aim of the article, which is to analyze the role of green spaces and different green structures in developing ecological and social environment in historic urban centers


Indrė Gražulevičiūtė – Vileniškė, Aistė Ražauskaitė, Ligita Ažukaitė, Vita Bartininkaitė, Lina Kulbokaitė, Jurgis Kameneckas

Sustainable Landscape Design in Urban Areas

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   The aim of the article is to analyze peculiarities of sustainable landscape design with special attention to urban areas. In order to reach this aim the analysis of literature was carried out and five experimental conceptual landscape design proposals were prepared. The projects have demonstrated the possibility to implement in the integrated manner ethical, aesthetical, and technological concepts of sustainable landscape design in the urban environment and the possibility to implement the principles of sustainability in different scale from urban square to landscape reserve.


Banga Grigaliūnaitė, Antanas Matelis

Pathogenic Fungi on Woody Plants in Old Rasos Cemetery of Vilnius City

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     The paper presents data on the pathogenic fungi and pests found in 2009-2010 in old Rasos Cemetery in Vilnius city. 21 species of pathogenic fungi, belonging to 15 genera,: Apiognomonia, Camarosporium,, Climacodon, Diplodia, Fumago, Fomes, Guignardia, Hendersonia, Microsphaera, Mycosphaerella, Nectria, Phyllactinia, Polyporus, Rhytisma, Uncinula were identified on woody plants of 10 species. The most widespread were Erysiphe fungi; Uncinula tulasnei damaged leaves of Acer platanoides (5–25 % ), while Microsphaera vanbruntiana – of Sambucus racemosa – (5–25 % ). Most harmful fungi: Climacodon septentrionalis, Fomes fomentarius, Polyporus squamosus infest individual maple trees, causing wood rot.

     Mature maples suffer from bark beetles (Scolytinae).


Banga Grigaliūnaitė, Elicija Stackevičienė, Antanas Matelis

Phytosanitary State of Maple (Acer L.) and Linden (Tilia L.) in New Green Plantations of Vilnius City

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In 2004–2010 in the new green plantations of Vilnius city five species of fungi (Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Diplodia mamillana, Rhytisma acerinum, Uncinula necator) were identified on common maple (narrow-leaved and round-shaped crown forms). On small-leaved linden ‘Greenspire‘ eight fungal species (Apiognomonia errabunda, Capnodium tiliae, Cytospora lsp., Diaphorte eres, Mycosphaerella microsora, Tyrostroma compactum, Schizophyllum commune, Paxillus involutus) as well as aphids (Aphididae), scale insects (Diaspididae), gall-forming mites (Phytoptus tetratrichus), oak slug sawfly (Caliroa annulipes) were recorded. On large-leaved linden (T. platyphyllus) spider mites (Eotetranychus tiliarum) were found.


Dainora Jankauskienė, Lina Kuklienė, Indrius Kuklys, Ieva Bertulytė

The Creation of Visual Information Devices Spatial Data Set in Klaipeda City

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    An article lists Klaipėda city visual information and the promotion of spatial data set development model,  analyzed data on visual information and external advertising units: their layout, aesthetic view, device types, sizes, status (device is legal or violate the requirements) and other information. After concluded Klaipėda city visual information and external advertising database analysis it is clear that almost half of the existing 114 devices (53 devices) violate at least one of the requirements provided for in the regulation of Klaipėda city visual information and the promotion of a special scheme.


Laimutis Januškevičius, Jūratė Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė

Parks and Squares of Interwar Period – Dendrological and Architectural Aspects

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     In 2006 - 2010 around 30 town parks and squares created during interwar period were explored and evaluated. The majority of the parks of this period have mixed structure of the plan with dominated irregular part of the park territory. In postwar and national revival period these greenery experienced bigger or smaller alternations (new elements of infrastructure came into being in their territories) which changed their spatial structure and decreased architectural value. 130 species and cultivars of introduced ligneous plants are registered in the analyzed greenery (40 are Pinophyta, 90 are Magnoliophyta) which belong to 27 families and 64 genera (Pinophyta – 3 families and 10 genera, Magnoliophyta – 24 and 54). Park of Likėnai Sanatorium, K. Dineikos Park in Druskininkai, Park of Birštonas, Park of Alytus Town and Park of Alytus College are the most valuable parks from landscape architecture point of view.


Aleksandr Kabanov

Collection Funds of Ornamental Plants of Main Botanical Garden Named after N. V. Tsitsin of the RAS: Ways of Formation and Prospects

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     The article discusses the features of stocking collection funds of ornamental plants of Main Botanical Garden Named after N. V. Tsitsin of the RAS herbaceous perennials for 65 years. Specific features of introduction trials of natural species and varieties. All samples under study, based on no less than three years of testing referred to as one of the 4 groups of prospects in terms of culture – unpromising, unpromising, promising, very promising. Samples, the first group, unpromising, carefully checked to avoid errors of cultivation. In some cases, may re-test of introduction. Noted that only those samples that can be attributed to a group of promising and very promising in terms of culture can become the basis for the enrichment of the cultivated flora of the region. Particular attention is paid to the preservation of varieties, which are considered not only as biological entities but also as an element of cultural heritage.

     The article highlighted the most interesting collection of ornamental grasses. In the framework of the possibility of introducing a new urban floras decorative perennial, it is proposed to use natural forms as they meet all the criteria. In some cases, quite promising and varieties, in particular relating to the old selection. One of the major tasks of any botanical garden is the popularization of scientific knowledge about plants. And for this purpose in the Department of ornamental plants creates a new collection, exhibition ornamental herbaceous plants, which would include virtually all of the collection. The article discusses the features of plants exhibiting in this exhibition.

     To preserve plant biodiversity in general, and varieties – as part of cultural heritage, proposed closer coordination between agencies and botanical nurseries.


Jurga Kučinskienė, Jurgis Bučas, Elena Moščenkova

Landscape Adaptation for Entertaining Use

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     The article analyzes the urgent things on landscape adaptation for entertaining use.

     An experience market based on a satisfaction of a customer need for experiences is analyzed and it is a factor determining the success of this market. Products of experience are the products (services) which are used for pleasure. Experiences have to be formed involving all five senses because only then it would be possible to create the environment which could satisfy human‘s needs and experiences. The purpose of the article is to determine the possibilities of the experience market use by adapting a landscape for entertaining use. An experience significance for tourism industry, theme parks, as a part of entertainment market, opportunities and tendencies of landscape creation for entertaining use are explored in the article. In conclusion, the entertainment landscape has to meet the conditions of ecological-friendly, esthetical, cultural, entertaining and economically useful landscape, because only such landscape will meet the need of people to the qualitative environment and searched experience.


Jurga Kučinskienė, Vida Gerikienė

Children's Playground Design Features

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     This article analyzes news about children's playground design.

     The Lithuanian and foreign literature on children playground design issues are analyzed, the data on children's playground design are compared in the article. Children's playground – it is the area where the children's needs are met. Play and sports facilities are reviewed and analyzed in the issued European Standards that are already approved by the Lithuanian Standardization Department. It is equipment on which installation and the quality of the material our children's safety and good feelings depends.


Gundega Linaare, Marina Jurkane

Green Architecture Traditions of Latvia‘s Cemeteries and Memorial Complexes

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  In this article the information on historical and modern experience in creation of places of burial and memorial ensembles is presented, created projects of an improvement of such territories are estimated. Necessity of creation philosophically comprehended, aesthetically attractive, architecturally well arranged complexes which meet the necessary modern requirements is established.


Zina Masilionytė

Greenery Formation in Sacral Complexes

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     In ancient sacral complexes formed greenery have their variety of applying and use. Some greenery incorporated aesthetically complement the environment, and expresses the existing building structure and layout of the symbolic, while others enrich people's needs for space not only for worship but also for recreation. Ancient sacral complexes plantation purpose and function are very different. So, for what reasons and what principles on the basis of ancient sacred buildings were greenery formed? How and under what their structure are allowed and identified the uses of the existing spaces? These questions allow a deeper insight into the uniqueness and sacred complex problems that they faced.


Rima Mikaliūnienė

Business Practice (PMF) Influence on the Training of Landscape Design Specialists and Their Adaptation to the Labour Market

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     The Lisbon strategy implementation programme and the strategic documents of Lithuania provides for expansion of entrepreneurship education in formal and informal means. In Klaipeda State College the future landscape design professionals are educated in a more entrepreneurial mindset. They take knowledge on business and management skills on the performance of business practices. This article attempts to take a closer look at the landscaping of students attending law simulation of practical business training firm "Florameta, chapter activities and practices influence on students' adaptation in the labor market.


Aušra Mlinkauskienė

Assessment and Prognosis of Changes of the State of Architectural Heritage Complexes

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     Changing economic, cultural, and political situation influences the physical state and cultural value of immovable cultural heritage. The diversity of cultural landscapes and regions is also affected by these factors. Continuous maintenance, appropriate use, and professional management are the inseparable parts of modern heritage preservation policies. However, the regulation of changes of architectural heritage must not be forgotten. The legal documents and the present state analysis of the cultural heritage demonstrate that the existing heritage preservation means cannot arrest the process of cultural heritage decay. Consequently, the preservation of the cultural heritage, as cultural property and the integral part of landscapes, is the question of essential relevance.


Rita Nekrošienė

Small Architecture for Natural Science Activities in South Germany Botanical Gardens

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     There are described variety, uses and so on of small architecture intended for natural science education in the botanical gardens. Studies carried out in 2005 in southern Germany Botanical Gardens: Munchen-Nymphenburg, Alpengarten Schachen and Augsburg. It was found that in those botanical gardens dominated small architecture for the presentation of information. It is: different labels, advertising and information boards, posters, signboards. In "green classrooms" prevailed some other architecture: gazebos, benches, stands, reviews and other sites. The Augsburg botanical garden was distinguished by small architecture variety, specific and uses.


Rita Nekrošienė, Jurga Kučinskienė

Formation of Green Areas of the Klaipėda City

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     There are described landscape gardening peculiarities in the city of Klaipėda in 17-20th century and the present urban green areas system are analyzed. SWOT analysis of the green area system in the city of Klaipėda is presented in this paper too. High attention is given to the diversity of decorative plants in Klaipėda greeneries: streets and parks. There are discussed the main solutions provided for in the Master Plan of the city of Klaipėda.


Aldona Zita Pikturnienė, Danguolė Juknienė

Evaluation of BS OHSAS 18011:2007 Standard Implementation in Klaipėda Companies in the Aspect of Plant Handling

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     The article discusses the occupational hazard of plant handling and infrastructure management works and validates the importance of safety and health management system OHSAS 18011 as the mean of occupational hazard prevention. The analysis of BS OHSAS 18011:2007 standard implementation in organizations motives, positive alterations and negative aspects are accomplished.


Regina Repšienė, Diana Baravykaitė

Diversity of Aquatic Plants Suitable for Small Containers in Liberec Botanical Garden

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     The article reviews the importance of aquatic plants on the environment and humans. Research carried out in July 2010 in the Liberec Botanical Garden of Czech Republic. There are analyzing aquatic and wetland plants, exhibited in the collection of this botanical garden, diversity and their properties. It also examined the possibilities in use of these plants for the creating of small water basins or a ‘water – swamp garden’. The diversity of blooming nimpheides for growing in small containers and diversity of helophytes suitable for miniature wetlands are provided.


Artūras Savickas

Plants and Management Tools of Jiesia Mound

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     During the survey of Jiesia mound, the specific composition of plants was determined, as well as territorial arrangement, esthetical condition, and suitability of mound’s facilities for visitors. The article analyzes problematic situations of the territory and applied regulations of protection and management. There were suggested management tools of plants and formation tools of facilities, which can improve visual expression and apply it better for public cognition and usage.


Marianna Smona, Andris Orechovs+

Perennials and Rocks in Planting Compositions

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    This article contains information on perennials for planting in connection with the stone in the garden of the total use of controlled and uncontrolled use and in the gardens of limited use and partially limited use. 264 different perennial taxa suitable for garden habitat called ‘rock garden’ were marked out. In this type of plantings rocks are determinant factors in creation of certain ecological conditions.


Vilma Stanaitienė, Jonas Vaidelys, Donatas Misiūnas

The Diversity of Containers and Analysis of Flower’s Assortment for Them in South and South-West Towns of Lithuania

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     Flower cultivation in the various containers is known from deep antiquity. Medicinal plant and horticultural crops have been planted inner courtyard of the monastery and noblemen for decoration and food purpose. The article reviews development of flower containers from ancient to modern times. It is analyzed the use of flower containers in South and South-Lithuanian cities and assortment of flowers for containers. The research was carried out during expeditions. It was used flowerbeds evaluation methodology of Jonas Vaidelys (2003). There were found 27 flower taxa in 1980–1983 and 42 flower taxa in 2004–2008. The number of annual and perennial flower taxa increased twice comparing these two periods of the research.


Antanina Stankevičienė, Vilija Snieškienė, Kęstutis Žeimavičius, Zita Jovaišienė,

Rūtilė Pukienė, Adomas Vitas, Jonas Karpavičius

Phytophthora Genus Fungi – Dangerous Pathogens of Woody Plants in Europe and Their Search in Lithuania

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     Global climatic changes, during the recent years, have influenced the migration of fungous diseases. Invasive fungus Phytophthora spp. was ascertained to injure most of ornamental plant species. Already in 20th century there were described 54 species in Europe. The pioneer of these researches in Lithuania was Z. Jovaišienės (2004). In 2010 the complex researches of Phytophthora spp. have been proceeded: opportunities of isolation and identification, spread, the done harm. There are yet found 16 tree species, which had injuries typical for Phytophthora spp. Mostly are injured separate trees, however in two parks there were detected 20–30 % of injured black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.).


Judita Varkulevičienė

Tree Peonies in Green Plantations, Their Care and Protection

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     In the article there are summarizes the Kaunas Botanical Garden of cultivated tree peonies four species introduction and acclimatization studies and their suitability for growth in the city square. Flowering time lasts 10–15 days, the morphological, decorative features were quite different: the height varied from 73 to 185 cm; diameter of bloom is 5–22 cm; flowers bush number varied from 30 to 120 flowers; the colour varied from white, yellow, orange, red, brown to all violet. Ecological factors in plant growth and decorativeness are not significant.


Kęstutis Žeimavičius, Vilija Snieškienė, Antanina Stankevičienė

The Problems of Taking Care of Trees Growing in Lithuania's Green Areas

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     The problems of taking care of trees which are growing in Lithuania's city greenery are discussed in this article. Plants growing under extreme conditions – street green plantings require special care. It is easily to take care of trees growing in parks. Main problems in city green plantings are: violation of cutting tree trunks, improper planting, mechanical damage of trunks, lack of geenery care in city parks.


Aija Ziemeļniece

Seeking of Synthesis and Harmony for Sculptures in the Space of Green Plantings

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     There is a significant meaning of the symbolics emotionally included in the works of art as well as in the total synthesis with the green plantings in the landscape architecture as well as in any other spatial art branch.

     Notwithstanding, the ability to perceive the information and the ability to feel the emotions characterize the different parts of human consciousness.

     Conformity exists between the qualitative structure of information and that of emotional one created by it. Depending on the specific landscape space or the total information of the form as well as on the conditions of the perception, the emotions caused may be more or less bright or only colour a bit our perception