Scientifc Journal of Klaipeda State College


ISSN  1822-9778 print / ISSN 2029-4549 online




Jonas Abromas, Petras Grecevicius, Algimantas M. Olsauskas, Antanas Sebeckas, Andrius Rimkus

Analysis of the Physical Conditions and Decorative Qualities of

Kretinga City’s Vilnius Street Plants

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     The article presents the research material on the physical conditions and decorative qualities of Kretinga city’s Vilnius street plants. The study was focused on identifying plant species, evaluating their current state and mistakes made during maintenance, photo documentation was also made. In order to determine the importance of green plantings depending on the areas on both sides of the street or object types, Vilnius street was divided into characteristic segments, the different greenery condition and care was taken into consideration. In the paper the recommendations for Vilnius street greenery management in pursuance of the street reconstruction are presented. Also more general findings, highlighting the total poor state of green plantings of Kretinga central part are prepared.


Valerija Baroniene

Scented Woody Plants in Urban Greeneries

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    Long ago humans valued scent of plant as its positive feature and reason to cultivate fragrant plants. Many studies have shown that a different scent not only enriches human life and provide positive emotions, but also affects human health. There are about 80 species of aromatic plants grown in Lithuanian green plantations, but their number can be increased significantly. This is one of the simple ways to make urban life more pleasant and healthier.


Erika Brinkyte, Indre Grazuleviciute-Vileniske

Features and Use in Formation of Urban Green Areas of Landscapes of Rural-Urban Interface

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   The article is aimed at analyzing the landscapes that develop in the interface of rural and urban environment and the use of the features and peculiarities of the rural environment for recreation forming ecological and attractive green areas in urbanized environment. The article encompasses the characterization, description and classification of landscapes that emerge in the areas of rural-urban interface. The analysis of theoretical models of rural-urban interface presented in literature and their peculiarities in the context of formation of urban green areas was also accomplished in order to reach the aim of the article. Assessment of possibilities to use the relicts of specific historical types or rural landscapes in development of urban green areas was carried out in order to demonstrate the peculiarities of Lithuanian case.


Laima Cesoniene, Remigijus Daubaras

Suitability of Half Highbush Blueberries for Gardening

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     Blueberry is a new horticultural plant in Lithuania which is distinguished not only due to valuable berries but also due to its ornamental properties. Seasonal development and productivity of half highbush blueberry were investigated in Kaunas Botanical Garden of VMU in 2002-2011. The Lithuanian cultivars ‘Danute’ and ‘Freda’, the breeding sample No. 16 as well as the American cultivar ‘Northcountry’ were investigated. Evaluation of phenological phases of half highbush blueberry corroborated the wide adaptation potential. All investigated half highbush blueberries were winter-hardy and any damages were observed. The Lithuanian cultivar ‘Danute’ was the most decorative due to dense bush, abundant flowering and bright red color of leaves in autumn.


Steponas Deveikis, Vaiva Deveikiene, Ona Deveikyte

Transformations of Montevideo Proposed by E. André: the Project

of City’s Greenery and its Realisation

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     This article provides a review of the development of greenery systems in Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay. The development of greenery systems in Montevideo was started in the end of the 19th century by the projects of French landscape architect E. André (1840–1911), who had also worked in Lithuania after. The importance of proposed urban transformations, the character of their realisation and the current state are described and assessed. The article is prepared according to the data collected by the authors while exploring the greenery of Montevideo in situ and in visu as well as collaborating with the researchers of the works of E. André. The experience of public parks development and its consistent patterns are highlighted – to acknowledge these is important for the further development of parks art and cultural heritage in Lithuania.


Dorota Gawryluk

The Importance of Contemporary Greenery Modernizations

of Historical Squares in Polish Cities

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     Numerous examples from around the world (NY, Berlin, London, ...) of urban public areas modernizations, carried out with respect to historical and cultural values of the places, using modern technology and building solutions, but also ordered greenery, indicate an opportunity to preserve the spatial identity of the city and its individual image. The article presents examples of squares in Polish cities (mainly in the area of Podlasie), which have already been subjected to modernization (Warsaw – Grzybowski Square, Bialystok, Ostrow Mazowiecka, Tykocin) and future modernization projects (Choroszcz, Knyszyn, Suwalki). Examples are presented from the perspective of the analysis of greenery use as a mean of urban composition to refer to the historical cultural values and their visibility in the area of squares.


Vida Gerikiene, Regina Malakauskiene

Analysis of the Environmental Quality in Klaipeda City

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     The article analyzes the quality of the environment in Klaipeda city.

This paper analyzes the literature relating to urban areas with environmental quality issues, briefly overviews the factors affecting the urban environment, peculiarities of urban environment formation and the influence of the urban environment on human. Klaipeda Municipality's environment monitoring results are discussed in this work.


Indre Grazuleviciute-Vileniske, Vilius Urbonas

Trends of City Center Regeneration: Rethinking of Garden-city Concept

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     The research is focused on the contemporary city center regeneration challenges in Western Europe. The main attention is devoted to the experience of the Great Britain in this field, where numerous projects of integrated city center regeneration were implemented in the last decades. We focus on the case of Bradford Center Regeneration Master plan, where the regeneration proposals are based on the green areas and high quality public spaces. This example encourages rethinking the urban-architectural concept of garden-city and the possibilities of its realization in historic city centers. We also discuss the possibilities to apply the experience of Western Europe to Lithuanian city center regeneration.


Banga Grigaliunaite, Antanas Matelis, Ona Motiejunaite

Mushrooms (Fungi) Found in the Park Vingis of Vilnius City

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     During the period of 2011–2012, 73 fungi species belonging to 67 genera were found in the Park Vingis of Vilnius city. All recorded fungi belong to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota sections, only one fungus – to Oomycota section. Most hazardous fungi were Phellinus pini, damaging old Pinus sylvestris plants. Erysiphe, Entomosporium, Marssonina, Mycosphaerella and other genus fungi parasitizing leaves of herbaceous and woody plants caused no serious damage to plants. Many saprotrofic and edible fungi such as Coprinus, Flammulina, Hypholoma, Macrolepiota, Tricholomopsis etc. genera were found on the fallen trees, rooting timber, in the ground or on surface litter.


Dainora Jankauskiene, Lina Kukliene, Indrius Kuklys, Rasida Vrubliauskiene

The Evaluation of Accuracy of the Topographical Elements in

Urbanized Areas

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     For the description, coding and estimation of the collected topographic spatial data, GIS technologies are widely applied. GIS allows you to create, manipulate, analyze and visualize spatial information, which can be adapted for a particular purpose.

This article presents the estimation of topographic map of randomly selected Klaipeda area and spatial data was placed in Klaipeda GDB500K array. After estimation, the inaccuracies have been revealed: according to the current situation, residential house is at a distance of 1.06 m, fence – over 1.38 m, sidewalk irregularities amount to 1 meter, and the slope error to 1.82 m


Laimutis Januskevicius, Jurate Kamicaityte-Virbasiene

Dendrological and Landscape Evaluation of Post-war Parks and Squares

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    In 2005 – 2012 around 100 town parks and squares created during post-war period were explored and evaluated. According to the size the mentioned greenery can be grouped as follows: large parks (18 %  of the analyzed greenery, area of which is more than 20 ha), parks of middle size (20 % of the analyzed greenery, area of which is 10 – 20 ha) and small parks and squares (62 % of the analyzed greenery, area of which is up to 10 ha). There are 14 parks and squares in good and very good condition (14 % of the analyzed greenery), 72 parks and squares in average condition (72 %), 13 parks and squares in satisfactory condition (13%) and only 1 park in poor condition (1%). 285 species and cultivars of introduced ligneous plants are registered in the analyzed greenery (86 are Pinophyta, 199 are Magnoliophyta) which belong to 35 families and 80 genera (Pinophyta –3 families and 10 genera, Magnoliophyta – 32 and 70). The majority of the greenery of this period has mixed structure of the plan (47 parks and squares or 47 % of the analyzed greenery), 40 parks and squares (40 %) have irregular structure of the plan and 13 (13 %) – geometric structure of the plan.

Santaka Park in Kaunas, Poetry and Pasesupys Parks in Marijampole, Youth Park in Panevezys, Big Island Park in Zarasai, Girionys Park near Kaunas Sea, Druskonis Lake and Vijunele River Pond Parks in Druskininkai, Youth Park in Alytus, Park “DainavaLegends” in Alytus reg., Varnaka River Pond Park in Jonava, Park of Sculptures in Kupiskis are the most valuable parks from landscape architecture point of view.


Laimutis Januskevicius, Ausra Mlinkauskiene

Renovation and Management of Old Parks in the Dendrological, Landscape and Environmental Aspects

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   Circa 250 (300) old parks can be found in our country today. Our studies show that the substantial part of these green areas have no spatial structure characteristic to parks, they cover only small areas and, therefore, should not be classified as parks, but as the green areas of the former manor residencies. The analyzed parks can be classified according to their layout into: parks of geometric design (55 parks, 27 %), parks of mixed design (107 parks, 53.5 %), landscape style parks (38 parks, 19 %). Currently in the manor parks of the country 350 species of introduced woody plants and decorative forms (Pinophyta – 95, Magnoliophyta – 255), belonging to 39 families and 93 genera (Pinophyta – 4 families and 11 genera, Magnoliophyta – 35 and 82) can be found. Local species of trees form the spatial structure of the majority of the country's old parks; thus they should be used restoring the spatial structure of such parks.

Restoring the assortment of the introduced woody plants the species that grew there previously should be taken into account. Each park has the specific characteristics, which form the identity of the park. Renovation and management efforts of one or another park should be directed to exploring, feeling and saving all the aspects.


Jurate Kamicaityte-Virbasiene, Artūras Narvydas

Conversion of Industrial Heritage Sites into Viable Public Green Spaces: Example of High Line Park

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     This article aims to establish industrial heritage sites conversion possibilities into viable public green spaces. It should be noted that not all of the converted spaces uniformly receive public recognition and are abundantly visited. The article discusses the requirements for socially vibrant public spaces. The hypothetical model of such spaces creation is established and the High Line Park in New York City is analyzed. The results of the analysis may be useful in planning the development of Lithuanian cities and towns, providing conversion trends for convertible industrial areas and foreseeing opportunities to create public green spaces in the converted areas.


Jurga Kucinskiene, Diana Baravykaite

Experiences Areas of Landscape Design Features: Visual Sense

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     The article analyzes aspects of the visual sense in the experience areas landscape planning. There are presenting the influence of the visual sense to experience areas landscape planning. There are analyzing the possibility of use of the visual sense and woody plants ornamental quality in the planning of different kind of visual and emotional experiences areas landscape.


Gintaras Kucinskas, Jurga Kucinskiene, Sigita Kucinskaite

Entertainment Landscape Planning with Powersim Dynamics Model

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   The article analyzes the adaptation of the PowerSim system dynamics model and mathematical model in the entertainment landscape planning. The aim of the article is to demonstrate the advantages of the PowerSim system dynamics model in the planning of the entertainment landscape. This article compares two methods of the model using – the traditional and using the opportunities of the PowerSim program. It analyzes how PowerSim program-based information model helps to model various scenarios and to avoid design and operational planning errors.


Gundega Linare

Landscape Designing for the Housing Construction Territories

Taking into Account the Geo-pathogenic Zones

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     Long-term study of popular traditions and folklore, as well as scientific works of leading geologists and physicists of Latvia has led the author of this article to understanding the need to consider not only the features of topography and vegetation, but also the location of geopathogenic zones when designing the land for construction of residential houses. In this paper, the techniques of an integrated approach to the study of the landscape for these purposes are examined.


Gundega Linare, Marina Jurkane

Examples of Environmental Accessibility in the Private Gardens

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     Gardens and parks are very important for a healthy and harmonious life of people. They help to reduce stress, to relax and get an aesthetic enjoyment. These green territories should be easily accessible to everyone, irrespective of age or state of health. Public parks have to follow regulations, which ease access for disabled persons. The same methods can also be applied in the design of private gardens. This paper describes private gardens, where environmental accessibility is already implemented.


Justina Maciukenaite, Giedre Gudzineviciūte

Green Territories Formation Possibilities in Preparation of Master Plans

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     In the last few years in Lithuania there were intensively prepared master plans, territories of towns and townships were planned. These territory planning documents newly evaluated green surroundings of urban places and regulated their development to the next ten years. Even if process of master plan preparation, as well as formation of green territories is regulated by the laws and norms, there are quite many problems in planning and realizing green territories.


Irina Matijosaitiene

The Principles of Equipment of Rest Areas near Automobile Roads

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    The principles of equipment of rest areas near automobile roads presented in this paper are based on road landscape management and rest areas‘ conception creation projects, funded accordingly by the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania and European Regional Development Fund, both projects now are being conducted in Lithuania. The equipment of rest areas has to be realized through these stages: their location along the road, exposition in the landscape, the demand of rest areas‘ equipment and buildings has to be analyzed, as well as their design and architecture, and planting. The design process must be based on crime prevention through the environmental design principles.


Irina Matijosaitiene, Kestutis Zaleckis, Inga Stankevice

Safety of Inhabitants in the Green Spaces of Kaunas City

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     The safety of inhabitants in green spaces was analyzed through the case of Kaunas city. For this purpose green areas which are used for various recreational forms of city dwellers and guests were selected. After the comparative analysis of axial maps and offences which were committed in green zones of Kaunas city or near their perimeter, some regularities were revealed. These regularities point out the necessity of a more detailed research of crime in green spaces. For a more detailed research Ramybes park in Kaunas city was selected and identified as one of the most unsafe territorial objects in Kaunas. Syntactic analysis of the park revealed the potentially dangerous open public spaces, and sociological survey helped to identify the reasons of unsafety / safety in this park.


Rita Nekrosiene

Peculiarities of Environmental Handling in the Old Lutheran Cemeteries in Klaipeda Region

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     The article analyzes the state of the old Lutheran cemeteries. Investigations were carried out in the territories of 40 cemeteries in Saugai rural administrative area, Šilutė district (Klaipėda region) in 2012. Cemeteries were different according to the area covered, the care and intensity of use. It was found that the majority part of all the cemeteries is more or less maintained, some of which are still used today. In such cemetery the largest amount of ornamental plant species diversity (more than 20 species) were founded. The total number of ornamental plants species established in the cemeteries was under 60.


Rita Nekrosiene

Dendrochronological Indication of Climate Conditions in Klaipeda City

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    The aim of this research is to evaluate environmental conditions in Klaipėda city using dendrochronological indication methods. Climate factors influence on linden annual radial increment was evaluated in the period of 1961- 2010. Different age linden and their stem radial increment, growing in 14 main streets and in relatively clean area of Karklės forest was chosen for environmental condition assessment in Klaipėda. There were taken 183 experimental samples for dendrochronological analysis. In 2006 and 2008 minimum average linden stem annual radial increment in all the streets was (respectively 0.177 and 0.168 mm), and maximum – in 1967 (0.351 mm). Air temperature increase often adversely affected the trunk radial increment of lime, growing in urban environment.


Ramune Olsauskaite Urboniene, Egidijus Jurkus

Aspects of the Recreational Environment of Coastline Mainland Beaches

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   Anthropogenic factors have a negative influence on the beach and protective beach foredune change in time and space. However, these factors can be coordinated by creating an appropriate infrastructure system network. In order to develop such a system and proper functioning it is necessary to analyze the Coastal Zone mainland recreational environment.

When assessing the Coastal Zone mainland sections it is necessary to analyze the beaches and protective beach foredune suitability for recreational activities and natural recreational environment such as hydrographic network, vegetation, forests and protected areas.


Algimantas M. Olsauskas, Ramune Urboniene, Jonas Abromas

The Influence of Balcony Plants on Interior Architectural Expression: Ecological, Hygienic and Compositional Significance

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   Balcony plants not only decorate your environment with multicolored flowers and leaves, but they purify it, moisturize and enrich the air with moisture. Therefore, the cleaner and of better quality air enters into the flats and improves indoor air quality and people's living conditions.

Balcony plants spread into balconies environment phyto-organic materials that destroy various types of microorganisms and secrete essential oils that stimulate functioning of human body. This article analyzes the aspects of eco-hygienic and compositional development of balconies interior of some residential houses in Klaipeda city, these aspects are associated with the opportunities of healthy living environment formation. The article presents the preliminary proposals for improving aesthetic quality of balconies' interior and forming a healthy and clean living environment.


Aldona Zita Pikturniene, Danguole Jukniene

The Experience of Occupational Hazard Assessment and the Problems of Companies of Klaipeda Region

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   The article emphasizes the importance of occupational hazard assessment to ensure the safety of employees and their health, also it discusses the legal regulation. The experience of occupational risk assessment and the problems of companies of Klaipeda region are analyzed. It was found that most of the occupational risk assessment in companies is carried out by specialized institutions of occupational risk factors research, because the specialists of occupational safety and health services have not enough the time or knowledge.


Regimantas Pilkauskas, Mantas Pilkauskas, Vainius Pilkauskas

Šiauliai Central Park Genesis, State and Future Development

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   The relatively large park of the size of 19 hectares was established in 1950 in the center of Siauliai. Park is rich in viable trees, valuable structures, but was never widely examined and described in literature. The article describes the origins of the park, nature conditions and plan inventory data, gives suggestions for plant reconstruction, construction of new paths and park space development.


Regina Repsiene, Danute Karcauskiene

Flowers‘ Demand for Soil Reaction and Its Regulation with

Different Lime Materials

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   The flowers presented in the paper like to grow in the soil with different reaction. Favourable growing conditions for about 80 % of various bio-ecological groups of flowers are the soils with neutral and close to neutral reaction. The dust, crushed and granular lime materials are preferred for decrease acidity of soil and substrate. Analysis of the different lime effect on acidity indicators, based on the exact studies data, is presented. The suggestions for soil acidity neutralization by selecting the real soil acidity and applying it to the individual bio-eco-flower groups, are presented.


Vilija Snieskiene, Antanina Stankeviciene, Ona Ragazinskiene

Diseases of Medicinal and Spice Plants Cultivated in Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University in Spring Season

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   Data for the 2006-2012 spring seasons on detected diseases of examined medicinal and spice plants cultivated in Medicinal plants science sector of Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University, as well as the identification of the infectious agents are presented in the article. In spring, primarily were observed non-infectious diseases due to winter damage. In 2006-2012 examined plants were damaged by pathogenic fungi of 10 genus and 8 species. The most dangerous infectious diseases were rust, leaves spots and rot. In spring most of the medicinal and spice plants in Botanical Garden are without symptoms of infectious diseases. Most of the diseases agents become more active in the middle of summer.


Antanina Stankeviciene, Vilija Snieskiene

The State of Small-leaf Linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) in Alytus City Greeneries

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   Tilia cordata – the dominant tree species in Alytus city greeneries. It is important to assess its condition and phytopathologic state and identify the cause of state changes. It was found that the greatest negative impact on the state of small leaf linden had physiological damages (defoliation, dischloration, leaf necrosis, dry branches) and biotic factors: fungal diseases (sooty disease, Apiognomonia errabunda, Mycoshaerella microsora, Schizophyllum commune) and pests (Caliroa annulipes, Eryophyes tilia-nervalis, Eucalipterus tiliae, Schizotetranychus tiliarum). At plantations were observed the negative impact of anthropogenic factor: trunk injuries done by lawnmowers, etc., scattered potassium salts on plants. During the study phytopathological state of small leaf linden changed only slightly, it is due to similar weather conditions. At street plantations where conditions are not favorable for tree growth, the state of trees was worse than at recreational plantations.


Edita Turskiene

Shrubby Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.) Varieties’ Research in Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University

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   Shrubby Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.) is a perennial, woody and deciduous shrub. Variety of flower colours, long-term and abundant flowering, ability to survive in adverse growing conditions, easy multiplication and healing properties make it recommendable for cultivation in both private and public spaces. Collecting and research of Shrubby Cinquefoil in Kaunas Botanical Garden started in 1990. There are now 34 varieties in living collection which is being continuously expanded. Acclimatization, phenology, biometry, resistance to diseases and pests are current research areas. Some of the results are presented in this article.


Judita Varkuleviciene

Medium-sized Tropical Plant Diversity in the Greenhouse of Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University and Their Use for Phytodesign

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   This article reviews the sub-tropical plants significance for the environment and human health. Studies were carried out in the greenhouse of Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University in the period of 1997-2012. This article analyses 71 plant species of 30 families exhibited in the collection, plant qualities and their usability for cultivating, greening of the interior or growing them in the room or winter garden. There are given descriptions of flowering, fruiting and ornamental foliage having plants suitable to grow in the cool interior.


Jurga Vitkuviene

The Use of Former Manors and Relics of Their Greenery in City

Recreational Infrastructure Development

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   Rational use of urban areas, quality of live and habitat, the changing needs of modern society, cultural heritage in risk justify the need of this research. The use of the residences of former manors, significant objects of Lithuanian culture heritage in urban development is relevant in this context. The complex coordination of the interests of heritage and urban development, holistic approach to solutions of this problem, would provide new features for urban spatial and functional structure, diversify the living environment. This cultural heritage has a high recreational potential, therefore it could be efficiently used in shaping of urban recreational facilities. The aim of this article is to make an overview of the relics of former manor residences spread in cities of Lithuania and of the potential of them, to formulate some

assumptions of the integration of them in urban recreation system.