Scientifc Journal of Klaipeda State College

FORMATION OF URBAN GREEN AREAS (2016 1 (13))

ISSN  1822-9778 print / ISSN 2029-4549 online


   



Articles:



1.

Milda Aidukaite

Dendrology Science objects - the Basis for Artistic Expression of Landscape Architecture

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     Green infrastructure axis of landscape architecture rotates around the objects of dendrology science - this is woody plants, occupying a central place in the spaces. Depending on the way they are located in space, the valuable three-dimensional structure is created, the architectural-planned landscape composition is formed, making a basis for artistic expression. How long the created space will have lasting value, it depends on many factors. One of the most important - the relationship between what is already valuable in space and what will be planned and implemented on the basis of the design task.

The article focuses mainly on the dendrological research on the single, dependent, and historical green areas. Lasting value of the projected green areas depends on their correct identification. It is methodologically consistent way to be followed by a landscape architect before offering design solutions.

Key words: landscape architecture, architectural - planned landscape composition, a historic spacial structure, dendrological assessment, park management project, plants.


2.

Antra Balode

Assessment of Flowering Time and Botrytis spp. Resistance in Lilium spp.

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     The aim of this research was to evaluate and to select the most suitable lilies for garden as well as landscape design. During the season of 2010-2011 10 Lilium species, 72 Asiatic, 6 LA (L. longiflorum × Asiatic), 7 Trumpet and 5 OT (Oriental × Trumpet) hybrids were tested for flowering time and Botrytis spp. resistance under open environmental conditions. The level of resistance to Botrytis spp. was rated visually - in grades 0 to 4 (0=healthy, resistant to 4=very heavily susceptible). In the field trial the flowering started in 36 to 92 days from the beginning of vegetation. The Caucasus and Martagons species were determined as early-flowering, the LA hybrids and Asiatic hybrids were medium-flowering but Trumpet hybrids, OT hybrids and L. henryi were late flowering. Resistance to Botrytis spp. among species and cultivars was different - Trumpet lilies were recorded as healthy.

Key words: Botrytis spp., flowering time, resistance.


3.

Laima Cesoniene, Remigijus Daubaras, Ina Jasutiene,

Inga Miliauskiene

Berries of American and European Cranberry as a Source of Biologically Active Substances

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    European cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. - is a native species in Lithuania and other European countries. Berries of European cranberry are widely used in nutrition and folk medicine. American cranberry V. macrocarpon Aiton became more popular in recent yrears. This valuable berry species has been cultivated for ground cover also. The results of biochemical investigations of both cranberry species are presented in this manuscript. Amounts of anthocyanins, benzoic acid, soluble solids and titratable acidity were determined in berry juice.

Key words: anthocyanins, benzoic acid, juice, cultivar.


4.

Vaiva Deveikiene, Steponas Deveikis

The Expression of William Robinson (1838-1935) and Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932) Ideas and Tradition in Landscape Architecture

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     This article provides a review of the activity and creativity of the British landscape architects and park creators William Robinson (1838-1935) and Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932). The development of their ideas and tradition is being continued still today. The article focuses on the architectural landscape of objects and patterns of development experience, a wild garden and flowering garden tradition aspects of cognition are important for further development of the Lithuanian landscape architecture.

Key words: William Robinson (1838-1935); Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932); wild garden tradition.

5.

Steponas Deveikis, Vaiva Deveikiene

Plant as Natural and Socio-cultural Structure Element - Pascal Cribier's (1953-2015) Creative Biography Sketches

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    This article provides a review of the creation of French landscape architect Pascal Cribier (1953-2015). The article analyses the ecological and aesthetical aspects of the application and use of plants - especially woody plants - in landscape solutions. Such combination of botanical, environmental, and aesthetical knowledge is inevitably relevant and necessary for landscape architect's creativity. The experience of green spaces - parks, squares and promenades - development and its consistent patterns are highlighted - to acknowledge these as important for the further development of park and garden art, for education of landscape architects and garden designers in Lithuania.

Key words: park, greenery, Garden of Donjon de Vez, Jardin de Mery sur Oise, Pascal Cribier, France.


6.

Konrad Dobrowolski

Landscape Design for the Old City Market in Lodz

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     The article presents the vision of public space revitalization of the post-industrial city of Lodz, in the context of economic and social situation existed there.

There are discussed the results of work of student group, created during an international workshop organized in 2015. Developed under my supervision it covers the design in the form of the concept of urban renewal, preceded by a broad research and analysis relating to the area between Liberty Square (north, the final part of Piotrkowska Street) and the Old Market.

There are presented two slightly different concepts, showing the applicability of different solutions in architectural and urban-planning context, offering different possibilities of transformation and revitalization of degraded urban areas.

Key words: transformation, revitalization of the public spaces, city of Lodz, Old Market, Manufaktura


7.

Konrad Dobrowolski

Mountain Trail Revitalization - the Sign of the Times or a Significant Effect of the New Designed Forms on the Existing Nature

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    The subject of study is enhancing the quality of the tourist route located in the National Nature Reserve Prad?d in the Czech Republic. This article is the presentation of the concept showing group of the resting viewpoints located in a typical environment foothills of Sudeten. The whole project has been divided into 5 spots whose location is closely connected with the mountain trail from Mal? Mor?vka-Ovc?rna. It is part of the tourist route running through the National Nature Reserve Prad?d of yellow difficulty level. This is an area with many natural beauties, which is one of the major tourist destinations in and around the town of Jesenik. In this section there is also the highest peak in the Eastern Sudetenland - Prad?d, having a height of 1,491 meters above the sea level. A large number of visitors, the surrounding nature, numerous trails and running ski and biking were among the main factors that determined the topic and location of this work.

Key words: transformation, revitalization of the tourist route, city of Jesenik, the National Nature Reserve Prad?d.


8.

Konrad Dobrowolski

Prudnik - the Transformation of the City Revitalization of the "FROTEX" Factory on Plant Products Factory

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    During the industrial revolution, the world experienced the development of production facilities, increase of demand and supply, and then entered the competition; prices have lost stability, and finally, many factories have announced their fall. In the case of Prudnik's FROTEX textile factory to collapse of this world famous industrial zone was the after war effect, changes in the economy and market. These changes entailed the loss of jobs, made, that residents of the Prudnik linked with the collapse of the town, rubble and heavy industry.

The keynote of the presented in this work project was to break with this awareness and introduce of the freshness. Putting land in the hands of greenery, the idea is to create buildings as two twin and green tower.

Key words: transformation, revitalization of the post industrial, city of Prudnik, Frotex, aloe plant.


9.

Dorota Gawryluk

Landscape Importance of Greenery in the Context of Historic, Post-Tsar Barracks in the North-East Poland

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     The article discuses the contemporary importance of controlled greenery in the landscape of historic post-tsar barracks in the north-east Poland. The issue is presented in relation to landscape on the scale of panorama (city outlines), urban scale and architectural-scenic interiors scale. This paper analyzes different forms of controlled greenery created in the context of barracks in subsequent historic periods and preservation of their legibility in the contemporary landscape. The selected barracks complexes from the area of north-east Poland (Augustów, Grajewo, Komorowo, Suwałki, Zambrów, ...) are confronted with the indicated post-military complexes in the territory of Poland.

Key words: historic Russian barracks, greenery in historic barracks, historic landscape.


10.

Natalia Dovgaliuk,

N. V. Zaimenko, N. A. Pavliuchenko, Vasilij Gorb

Problems of Long-term Exhibit of Syringa L. in a Monoculture in the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of NAS in Ukraine

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     The exposition collection of lilac in M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine has been planted since 1948. Now there are 22 species and 132 cultivars of Syringa L. plants. Long-term cultivation of lilacs plants led to soil sickness. The paper deals with ways of negotiation of soil sickness and increasing resistance of lilac plants to adverse environmental factors in a monoculture. Application of siliceous mixture (peat and analcite - 10:1) and winter rape biomass as green manure improved state of soil-plant system under soil sickness.

Key words: Syringa L., soil sickness, monoculture, siliceous mixture, green manure.


11.

Nana Goginashvili, Zviad Bobokashvili, Zaza Shavliashvili, LashaTsigriashvili

Poplars (Populus spp.) in Wild / Rural Landscapes and Their Use in Windbreak Strips of Georgia

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate


    Two species of poplars have been studied - Populus hybrida M. Bieb.  and Populus euphratica Oliv.- that are spread on the territory of Eastern Georgia in wild landscapes. Changes in their populations have been mentioned. It has been established that the area of the mentioned species of poplar is rapidly getting narrow and needs to accomplish of conservation measures.

Artificial reproduction of these species of poplar by scion and their introduction in windbreak strips has been planned and implemented. Within the framework of our study we have chosen the species that may be used in windbreak strips of Eastern Georgia, and planned the modern technologies of their planting.

Key words: Populus, vegetative reproduction, windbreaks


12.

Indre Grazulevichiute-Vilenishke

Urban Nature: Research Problematics

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   Urban nature here is considered as the territories and lots of various size with visually dominant natural elements in the administrational limits of the city. The aim of the research is to present the problematics of urban nature research. The research allowed to distinguish urban nature research problematics in the selected areas - perception and characterization, social significance, environment - and to distinguish the further research directions. The research has revealed that the research problematics of this phenomenon is very wide and encompasses both the description and characterization of urban nature and the specific design tasks. The further research on urban nature should encompass the extensive review of literature, research and projects, the research of local peculiarities of urban nature, the analysis of this phenomenon from psychological, social, aesthetic, economic, city's image and other points of view, the research on urban natures in the context of heritage preservation and environmental protection.

Key words: city, urban environment, nature, natural environment, urban nature, research trends.


13.

Indre Grazulevichiute-Vilenishke,

Erika Zaleskiene

Discussion of the Solutions of the National Landscape Management Plan from the Point of View of Rural-urban Interface Landscapes

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    The article is aimed at analyzing the National Landscape Plan of the Republic of Lithuania adopted on 2nd October 2015. The solutions of the document cover the entire territory of Lithuania and determine the principal preservation and use provisions and management trends of country's landscape; this makes this document an important part in landscape development, integrating global, regional trends, country's identity and needs, and the particular territorial planning tasks. The aim of the research is to analyze the proposals of the National Landscape Plan from the point of view of the rural-urban interface landscapes: to determine how these landscapes are characterized and treated in the document, how they should be developed, managed and used according to the provisions of the document.

Key words: National Landscape Plan, rural-urban interface landscape, peri-urban landscape.


14.

Petras Grecevichius, Jonas Abromas, Jonas Genys,

Romas Marchius,

Ramune Olshauskaite Urboniene

Composition of the Japanese Garden. Green plants

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     Famous Japanese gardens are just one of many manifestations of the delicate aesthetics, philosophy and way of life of Eastern cultures. The Japanese concept of garden has mono-semantic function, i.e. to improve the quality of life, to help feel the balance between the spiritual and material life, and to experience harmony. On 13-23 November 2014, Klaipeda University professor Petras Grecevicius was on an internship in the city of Kyoto, Japan. During the stay, studies on 22 classic historical gardens were carried out, and such aspects as spatial structure, features of bioarchitectural construction and plant composition, the ratio of the plants with building architecture were analyzed. The links with Chinese and Korean historical gardens and parks were searched. This article contains plant selection and composition trends observed during the investigation, and the plant composition peculiarities of historical and contemporary Japanese gardens. The focus is on the description of most important plant species, presented summaries that can be useful not only for developers of Japanese gardens in the Baltic region, but also for arranging plants in Lithuanian parks and farmsteads.

Key words: Japanese style garden, Shinto, Buddhism, green plants, culture heritage, landscape.


15.

L. P. Ishchuk

Using Poplar (Populus L.) in Urbanized Ecosystem of Bila Tserkva Town

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate


    Taxon structure of Populus L. representatives and their role in urbanized ecosystem of Bila Tserkva town was determined on the basis of route survey with using of landscape evaluation methods. Viability evaluation of willow-poplar plantations and the ways of their improvement were given bellow.

Key words: Populus L., urboekosystema, parks, square, boulevard, city Bila Tserkva.


16.

Jonas Jakaitis

Power of Creativity: the Material Environment Design Formation in the Context of Education Process

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    VGTU has been developing a new pedagogical model in higher education: The Problem - Based Teaching/Learning method (PBT/LM). In particular, the Faculties of Environmental Engineering or Architecture in the Department of Design has developed a teaching/learning proposal that introduces students to a different type of learning. One of the theoretical and practical frameworks strengthen the understanding of learning is the socio-cultural perspective. This article aims at exploring the PBT/LM tools from this theoretical perspective to practical skills. In addition, this research may also disclose a new viewpoint in science teaching for other universities in different spheres of activities, also in the field of landscape architecture.

Key words: urban architecture, material environment design, functional decomposition, creativity studies.


17.

Aurelija Jankauskaite, Ramune Olshauskaite Urboniene

Palanga Resort Greenery Analysis

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    At the end of the XIXth century, Palanga acquires the features of a resort town - the harmony of constructions and natural shell are emphasized. In later plans Palanga resort's vision was not parks in the town but a town in the park (Stauskas, 2012). However, after Lithuania re-created its independence, Palanga resort loses its peculiarity and originality. Development of resorts commercialized the seaside nature, but nearness of the rest of the nature is the main attribute of the seaside resorts (Gray 2006). In the article there are analyzed Palanga resort's alternation of vegetation system, also factors under influence. The study excludes three periods: from the end of the XIXth century until the Second World War, the soviet period, and after Lithuania regained its independence.

Key words: greenery, resort development, Great Palanga, urbanization.


18.

Laimutis Janushkevichius

Dendrological Evaluation of Lithuanian Estate Parks

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    From 1999 to 2015 more than 200 old parks all over Lithuania were examined. By style the parks are distributed as follows: parks of formal style - 55 (27.5?), parks of mixed style - 107 (53.5?) and parks of landscape style - 38 (19?). According to the assortment of foreign trees and bushes, country parks can be categorized as follows: parks - dendrological collections (?50 species and forms of introduced trees and bushes), rich parks (30-50), middle parks (20-30) and poor parks (?20). On the whole 342 species and cultivars ( Pinophyta - 93 and Magnoliophyta - 249) of introduced woody plants grow in the parks. The plants belong to 39 families and 93 genera (Pinophyta - 4 families and 11 genera, Magnoliophyta - 35 families and 82 genera).From the dendrologic point of view, it is necessary to protect most valuable, old species and forms of plants, which have impressive dimensions. Such criterion fits 93 species and forms (Pinophyta - 37, Magnoliophyta - 56).

Key words: park, square, species, cultivar.


19.

Manana Kakhadze, Tsisia Chkhubianishvili, Mariam Chubinishvili,

Rusudan Skhirtladze,

Iatamze Malania, Irine Rizhamadze

A New Mean for Biological Control of Cabbage White Butterfly in Georgia

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate


    The cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae is very significant pest insect of cabbage culture. It is necessary the cabbage protection from pest insects by the environmentally safe means. The local entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), Steinernema feltiae, "Georgian strain" against P. brassicae was tested. The nematode suspension of S. feltiae 2000 IJs/ml (IJs - Infective juveniles) was used in experiments. After twice treatment the action of local EPN on different instars larvae was 55.5% - 83.2%. Microscopic examinations proved the presence of S. feltiae on the body of P. brassicae.

Key words: Cabbage white butterfly, pest, EPN, larvae


20.

Manana Kereselidze, Mzia Beruashvili

Biological Potential of the Entomopathogenic Fungi Isaria fumosorosea Wize for Biocontrol of Pest Insects at Urban Area Plants in Georgia

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   The biological control possibility of entomopathogenic fungi Isaria fumosorosea was tested against three important pest insects: Hyphantria cunea Drury, Corythucha ciliate Say and Glyphodes pyloalis Walker in Tbilisi, Georgia under laboratory conditions. I. fumosorosea showed 30 % corrected efficacy against larvae of G. pyloalis, and 50 % for C. ciliata. At day 9 post treatment of H. cunea larvae, by isolate ARSEF access no. 10244, isolate ARSEF access no. 1569, and mixed suspension, mortality rates of 37.5%, 68.7 % and 65.6 %, respectively, were recorded.

Key words: Entomopathogenic fungus, pest insect, biocontrol.


21.

Wolfram Kircher, Andreas Thon

Vegetation on Filter Bodies of Natural Swimming Pools (NSPs) with P- or C- Limitation

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    Natural swimming pools (NSPs) offer a new way to swim in fresh water that has not been treated with chemicals. Three relevant filtering methods effect either a phosphorus (P-) or a carbon (C-) limitation to guarantee clear water and low string-algae stock. Parallel to this the nitrogen content in the water tends to oligotrophic conditions. Most plants, which are generally used on filter bodies in NSPs, grow weakly and show severe deficiency symptoms. In trials at Anhalt University plants from oligotrophic bogs and fens were tested on filter bodies of the "Technical Wetland" principal with three different variants of water percolation. Good results were achieved mainly from fen plants, which are recommended for P-limited pools, since these comprise the necessary water hardness and a high pH value. For C-limited systems with low hardness plants from acidic bogs are suitable. Sphagnum mosses however must be selected carefully, in the trial on percolated filters S. palustre failed, whilst S. squarrosum grew well.

Key words: natural swimming pool, water filtration, fen, bog, oligotrophic


22.

Jurga Kuchinskiene, Diana Baravykaite

Experiences Areas of Landscape Design Features: Touch Sense

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate


     Humans perceive the environment with different receptors, which are in eyes (seeing), nose (smelling), mouth (tasting), ears (hearing). However, there is and a lot of objects in the environment which we understand and evaluate by feeling, scraping the surface or just touching (ambient and object temperature, the moisture content of perception). The man by touching can feel different experiencing sensations that cause certain feelings, memories and associations. The article gives an overview of aspects of the touch sense, analyze its sensory (tactile) perception of touching the woody plants and variety of related sensations (feelings). There are discussed plants with various touch sense causing parts and their usability in the landscape planning of experience areas.

Key words:experiences area, touch sense,landscape.


23.

Svitlana Los, Valentina Gritsaychuk

The Perspectives for Oak Hybrids Use in Landscape Architecture of Ukraine

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

  The results of ornamental features evaluation for of S. S. Pyatnytsky's oak hybrids are represented and the perspectives for their use in landscape architecture are determined. In 1930s-1950s, under guidance of S. S. Pyatnytsky in URIFFM, the large-scale work on oaks interspecific hybridization had been carried out. Four best hybrids were included in the State Register of the Plant Varieties of Ukraine. Assessment of the hybrids' ornamental features was not carried out yet. A complex evaluation scale of oak ornamental features was proposed based on scales of other authors and on in-house research. As a result of the complex evaluation, progenies of Komarov's and Michurin's oaks have been included in the group of highly ornamental oaks. Progenies of Timiryazev's and Vysotsky's oaks are assessed as ornamental. The oak hybrids can be used for different target purposes, particularly in landscape architecture in Forest-Steppe and Steppe of Ukraine both as solitaire and in compositions, and to create spottiness and arrays at various reliefs when establishing regular and landscape parks.

Key words: oak hybrids, progeny, ornamental features, physiognomic type, landscape architecture.


24.

Luis Loures

Using Post-industrial Landscape Transformation as an Urban Development Strategy - Tales from Portugal

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   It is increasingly acknowledged that previously developed land, e.g. postindustrial landscapes, constitutes an undervalued asset towards urban redevelopment. In fact, this idea is supported by the six key challenges for producing a sustainable built environment presented by the European Council for Construction Research, Development and Innovation: urban sprawl; redeveloping industrial sites; regenerating brownfield sites; sustainable construction; green space, and regenerating distressed neighborhoods. However, even if it is widely recognized that the reclamation of postindustrial landscapes constitutes an important strategy towards city's development, it is not fully recognized by national, regional and local authorities and decision makers that redevelopment projects should be associated to multidimensional objectives based somehow on a twist of sociocultural, economic and environmental issues. This paper aims to exemplify the importance of these aspects in postindustrial redevelopment by presenting a set of eight Portuguese redevelopment proposals / projects where it is possible to identify the relevance of more than one of the sustainability dimensions to urban development. By assessing and identifying the significance and the benefits associated to postindustrial redevelopment, this article highlighted that postindustrial landscapes should be viewed as a great opportunity for urban renewal and redevelopment.

Key words: urban development, postindustrial landscapes, redevelopment.


25.

Viktoriia Lovynska, Svitlana Sytnyk, Mykola Kharytonov,

Ludmila Katan, Mychaylo Gumentyk

Urban Forests Biometric Assessment in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   The structure of the urban forests in Dnipropetrovsk region is analyzed. The urban forests are classified into the following functional categories: environmental, scientific, historical, cultural significance forests, recreational and health forests, and protection (erosion control) forests. The main species from coniferous, hardwood and softwood groups are established and their total wood stock is calculated. The species list and age structure in the urban forest are analyzed. Age structures for the main forest-forming species are given and average wood stock dependence on age is described.

Key words: forest fund, forest category, age groups, average wood stock, forest-forming species.


26.

Asta Malakauskiene, Vida Mildaziene, Giedre Pauzaite,

Zita Nauchiene,

Irina Filatova, Veronika Liushkevich

The Effect of Pre-sowing Cold Plasma, Vacuum and Electromagnetic Field Treatments on Pine and Spruce Seed Germination and Seedling Morphological Parameters

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

  Conifers are sensitive to polluted urban environment. This study estimated the effects of pre-sowing seed treatment, using vacuum (V), cold plasma (CP) and electromagnetic field (EMF) on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), searching for potentially better seedlings for urban green areas. It was estimated, that germination of conifer seeds was mostly positively affected by EMF treatment. The effects of physical stressors depended on pine seed colour. Best results for spruce seedlings were achieved using EMF5 pre-sowing treatment and for pine seedlings - V7.

Keywords: vacuum, low-temperature plasma, electromagnetic field, seed germination, seedling height and branching.


27.

Asta Malakauskiene, Jolanta Shabunaite

The Potential of Growing Buttercup Witch Hazel (Corylopsis pauciflora) in Urban Green Areas

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   The aim of this study was to observe phenological regularities of buttercup witch hazel (Corylopsis pauciflora), to evaluate the possibility of propagation by seeds and the potential of growing this species in urban green areas. Average duration of C. pauciflora vegetation period in 2011-2015 was equal 210.4±13.96 days. The natural seedlings or offshoots under the mother shrub were not found - the potential risk of this plant species natural spread is very low. 33.33 % of seeds germinated in 2008 and 55.56 % in 2014. In order to achieve fast ornamental effect, seedlings of the 6th or 7th year should be planted in urban green areas.

Key words: Corylopsis pauciflora, phenology, propagation by seeds.


28.

Igor Mordatenko, natalja Doiko

Larch (Larix Mill.) in Landscaping of Right Bank Forest-Steppe in Ukraine

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     The article presents the characteristics of the decorative qualities of the genus Larix, taking into account the decorative effect of certain plant organs: the color of young and mature cones, pine needles, branches, trunk, texture and shape of the crown. The examples of using the larch to create highly decorative compositions in ancient parks and botanical gardens of Ukraine, as well as in landscaping of cities are given. The dependence of the decorative qualities of the Larix genus species on the phases of seasonal development is shown.

Key words: larch, decorative effect, landscaping, landscape, seasonal changes.


29.

Inese Naburga-Jekrmakova

New Varieties of Bearded Irises in the Collection of the Botanic Garden of University of Latvia

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   This study describes the 22 new varieties of bearded irises of Latvian breeders from the collection of the Botanic Garden of the Latvian University: the shape and color of the flower, the height of shoots. It presents preliminary estimates of survivals and multiplication for each varieties and the statistical analysis to compare the groups of varieties on these indicators. It describes the range of decorative neighbouring perennials to provide continuous flowering and decorativeness of exposition of bearded irises.

Key words: bearded irises, survival, multiplication factor, the range of neighbouring plants, terrace.


30.

Rita Nekroshiene

Ornamental  Herbaceous Plants in the Green Areas of the Old Lutheran Cemeteries

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   The article discusses the ornamental herbaceous plant species diversity, the distribution of plants in the old Evangelical Lutheran cemetery. Investigations were carried out at the green areas of 110-cemeteries in Šilute and Klaipeda regions, and in the territory of municipality in Palanga (Western Lithuania), in 2012-2014. In the green areas of abandoned or partly maintained cemeteries prevailed the following species and forms of herbaceous ornamental plants: several types and forms of bluish (Hosta L.), plain aquilegia (Aquilegia vulgaris L.), brown mayfly (Hemerocallis fulva L.), carnations (Dianthus barbatus L.). A large variety of perennial herbaceous ornamental plants: several kinds of Tagetes L., Begonia L., Aster chinensis L., Viola wittrockiana Gams was found in maintained and still used cemeteries.

Key words: ornamental plants, cemetery, introduction, species.


31.

Giedrė Pauzaite, Asta Malakauskienė, Zita Nauchiene,

Irina Filatova

Veronika Liushkevich, Vida Mildaziene

Investigation of the Morphological Changes in Perennial Plant Development Induced by Pre-sowing Seed Treatment with Physical Stressors

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   The effects of short-term seed treatment, using radio-frequency electromagnetic field, vacuum and cold plasma, on germination and early development of a variety of perennial plants: Smirnov's rhododendron (Rhododendron smirnowii Trautv.) and three true grasses (Festuca arundinacea, Festuca pseudovina, Deschampsia cespitosa) were investigated. We report that species dependent effects are induced by seed treatments in germination and in plant development. We describe also the changes induced in morphological plant traits that can be valuable for the greenery.

Key words: perennial plants, pre-sowing seed treatment, physical stressors, germination, development.


32.

Nijole Piekiene, Jonas Abromas

Effect of Human Activities on Forming of Forest Plantations in the Landscape of National Parks

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   The article deals with the theme of forming forest plantations in state parks' landscape. Analysis of Lithuanian and foreign literature on the issue of forming forest plantations in national parks' landscape, a brief overview of the regulations on the legal basis for forming forest plantations in state parks, its specialized management and application of features for public use. A Lithuanian law defines forest plantations as man-made or novel trees introduced by man in forests not less than 0.1 ha area, restoration or afforestation. A tree species is selected by taking into account the conditions of the forest's growing site, its experience. Mature coniferous - deciduous trees are given priority.

Key words: forest plantations, national park, landscape.


33.

Regimantas Pilkauskas

Publicity, Openness and Honesty in the Contests of Park and Garden Projects

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   Based on the examples of the contests of Lithuanian parks and gardens, the situation how competition conditions limit the ability of participation of young, not fitting to qualification requirements or not having financial basis art creators, is discussed in this article. Method of rating by counting evaluation points is criticized which is formal, hides strengths and weaknesses of the projects and does not show their real value. It is suggested to use qualitative evaluation in text form instead of quantitative form.

Key words: landscape architecture, parks and gardens, contest, publicity.


34.

Olga Pohilchenko

Species of Genus Picea A. Dietr. (Pinaceae) in the Collection of National Botanical Garden N.N. Gryshko NAS of Ukraine and the Opportunity to Use Them in Landscaping

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   Two species of spruces (P. abies L. Karst., P. pungens Engelm.) are currently used in Kiev landscaping. As a result of our observations, we can recommend the following seven spruces to enrich the assortment: P. engelmannii Engelm., P. x albertiana S.Br., P. koraiensis Nakai, P. obovata Ledeb., P. omorica (Pančić) Purkyne, P. orientalis Link., P. schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey. Six more species and one variety (P. asperata Mast., P. breweriana S.Wats., P. glauca Voss., P. glehnii Mast., P. jezoensis Carr., P. likiangensis var. montigena (Mast.) W.C. Cheng), P. sitchensis Carr.) can be proposed for planting in botanical collections.

Key words: spruce, collections of conifers, landscaping, Kiev.


35.

Lina Pridotkiene, Diana Baravykaite, Vida Gerikiene

Bionic Forms Elements in the Interior and Environment: Landscape Design Study Practice

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   Bionics is called as a component part of design, technique and architecture. In our environment the usage and aiming of bionic forms are very frequent and becoming popular. From old times people were trying to stylize nature forms. In our daily life bionic forms are surrounding us, although we sometimes do not observe them at all. This affects our emotions and wellbeing. The evolution of bionics illustrates that this branch in design and environment planning is very modern and has huge unused possibilities. Due to these reasons, it is an appropriate goal to define the concept and examples of bionics and its forms. The most perfect human's created forms have analogue in the nature. However, most of rational forms and structures in nature are still unused and not adapted. Students of landscape design are trying to implement their creative ideas while invoking nature elements, forms and materials in their practical projects. This article examines advantages and mistakes that occur in such practical projects.

Key words: bionics, bionic style, natural forms, architectural bionic, stylization, design.


36.

Liudmila Prishchepa, Antanina Stankevičiene, Vilija Sneshkiene

The Spectrum of Activity of Bacterial Preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis Against Pests

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   The results of studies assessing spectrum of bacterial preparations (Baciturin, Bactocid) on the most harmful herbivores fruit, forest crops and greenhouse pests are presented. An extraction of entomopathogenic bacteria from natural populations Operophtera brumata, Erannis defoliaria., Laspeyresia pomonella, Mamestra brassicae, Oryctes nasicornis, Forficula auricularia, Agriotes spp., Phyllobius oblongus, Anthonomus pomorum, Orgia antigua, Carabidae spp., was made. Batsiturin the biological product from Bacillus thuringiensis showed a high activity to the protected greenhouse plants. The product has a high protective effect (80.9-100 %) against leaf eating phytophagous (Operophtera brumata, Erannis defoliaria, Tortrix viridana, Euproctis chrysorrhoea). The sensitivity of pests (Hediadimidio abana, Archips rosana, Spilonota occelana, Operophtera brumata, Nematus leucotrochus and Byturus tomentosus) of fruit crops to the drug Baktotsid is evaluated and high biological effectiveness in a field experiment is determined (100.0 %).

Key words: bacterial preparations, phytophagous, forest, trees, indoor ground.


37.

Svitlana Prokhorova, Iryna Ahurova

Phytoindication Assessment of Habitat Conditions in the Olshanitskii Granite Quarry (Kyiv region, Ukraine) as an Example of Anthropogenic Ecotope

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   Studies of the vegetation and agrochemical properties of anthropogenic substrates in the granite quarry are presented. All sampling plots were suitable for plant growth in spite of different vegetation history and altitude. The pH values varied between neutral and alkali soil response (from 6.2 to 8.3) while humidity changed from 0.2 % to 24.5 %. All studied substrate samples were non-saline (salinity was below 0.3g per 100g of soil). Changes in plant species composition and projective cover were established as a function of substrate parameters. It was established that substrate humidity is most effective factor in determining the floristic composition of quarry units as compared with salinity or pH. The mesophyte and hygrophyte projective cover as well as plant species value according to the Tsyganov scale were found as most informative phytoindication indexes of substrate humidity, which reliably correlate with instrumentally measured data.

Key words: anthropogenic substrate, pH, humidity, salinity, phytoindication scales.


38.

Loreta Semashkiene, Vaida Vaitkute Eidimtiene

Survey on Functionality and Aesthetic Condition of Plantations at Kaunas Laisves Avenue and Intersecting it Streets

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    This article presents the assessment of functionality and aesthetic condition of plantations at the Laisves Avenue and intersecting it streets. During the inventory of greenery at the Laisves Avenue and intersecting it streets, 820 trees were evaluated. The composition of tree species was determined, sanitary and aesthetic condition was evaluated, the problems of street plantations were discussed. In reconstructed intersecting the Avenue streets a better condition of plantations was observed, while in the reconstructed part of the alley new damages on lime trees were detected, their surface roots were cut off, which caused new injuries, worsened nutrition, reduced resistance to disease, and later to diminished decorativeness and functionality.

Key words: avenue, plantations, lime tree, public spaces, inventory.


39.

Vilija Snieshkiene

Human Activity Impact on Plant Condition in Alytus City Streets

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   In Alytus city the human activity impact on urban greenery in the period of 2009-2015 was analyzed. The condition of Tilia cordata which is the dominant species was evaluated. Depending on meteorological conditions during some of the years defoliation and discoloration increased. A bit more necrosis was noticed in the places where soil had more Cl (7.1-8.9 mg kg-1). Because Tilia cordata is a local flora species the variety of pathogens is big. But noticeable damage they make only during very pathogen favorable years when the temperature is higher than the standard rate of climate. Other mostly next to the streets growing species in Alytus city are in a rather good condition, except Aesculus hippocastanum which are infested by Cameraria ohridella. However, the amount of these pests decreased during the last two years. Most of the young trees (Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides 'Eurostar', 'Columnare' and 'Deborah', Sorbus x thuringiaca 'Fastigiata') which were planted 3-5 years ago were in a quite good condition after 2-3 years. Aesculus hippocastanum 'Baummanii' is not suitable for urban greenery in Alytus.

Key words: urban street greenery, human activities.


40.

Natalija Solomacha, tatjana Korotkova

Current State of Species of the Genus Quercus L. Collections at the State Enterprise "Mariupol Forest Research Station"

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   The article presents the results of the study of the current state of the genus Quercus L. collections. Q. macranthera Fisch, Q. Miczurinii Pjatn, Q. Timirjasevii Pjatn, Q. borealis Michx have the best indicators of growth in height, while Q. Wyssotzkyi Pjatn, Q. petraea Liebl. - in diameter. Q. dentata Thumb., Q. imeretina Stev., Q. hartwissiana Stev., Q. longipes Stev., Q. macranthera, Q. macranthera f. pinnatifida Medw., Q. macrocarpa Michx., Q. mongolica Fisch., Q. montana Willd., Q. petraea, Q. petraea f. mespilifolia Wallr., Q. Miczurinii, Q. robur L. f. fastigiata Lam., Q. robur x Q. petraea, Q. borealis, Q. Timirjasevii, Q. Komarovii Pjatn., Q.Wyssotzkyi were decorative, drought - and cold resistant at the age of 30 and older. In the forest plantations Q. borealis grows in height on a par with Q. robur, but it lags behind in diameter.

Key words: introduction, species of the genus Quercus L., decorative, cold- and drought resistance.


41.

Antanina Stankevichiene

Forest Parks of Kaunas City and the Status of Grown Trees

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   The article gives an overview of adaptation of five largest forest parks (Kleboniškis, Panemune, Palemonas, Pažaislis, Romainiai) at the territory of Kaunas city to recreational needs. The status of predominant woody plants was analyzed. The average damage grade of an injury of morphological origin (defoliation, dechromation, dead branches at crowns, leaves necrosis), 7 species agent of fungal disease (Rhytisma acerinum, Sawadea bicornis, Apiognomonia errabunda, Erysiphe alphitoides, Mycosphaerella millegrana, Didymosphaeria petrakiana and sooty mold agents) and 4 species pests (Caliroa annulipes, Phyllonorycter issikii, Eucalipterus tiliae, Pristiphora subbifida) were assessed.

Key words: trees, status, forest parks of Kaunas city.


42.

Antanina Stankevichiene, Jolanta Shabunaite

The introduction of maple genus (Acer L.) plants in Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University

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   The article gives an overview of introduction studies of Acer L. at Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University: plant variety and state. 65 taxa plants were described in 2015: 29 species, 6 subspecies, 23 cultivars, 6 varieties of the genus Acer in the collection. The time of the purchase of plants is presented in this artickle. Intensity of fungal diseases agents (Sawadaea bicornis, S. tulasnei, Rhytisma acerinum, Phyllosticta negundicola, P. aceris, Mycocentrospora acerina, Discula campestris, and Mycosphaerella aceris) is described. Rhytisma acerinum violated 8 taxa of plants: the strongest violated - A. platanoides, A. platanoides 'Globosum', A. platanoides 'Crimson King'; agent Mycosphaerella aceris - Acer argutum; agent Sawadaea tulasnei - A. platanoides 'Crimson King' and Phyllosticta negundicola - Acer palmatum. Pests detect: Pristiphora subbifida, Eryophyes macrorhynchus (strongest damaged A. heldreichii ssp. trautvetteri and A. platanoides 'Schwedleri') and Chaetophorella aceris (more severely damaged 'Schwedleri').

Key words: Acer L., collection, state, Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University.


43.

Elena Suslova,

Ludmila Kharkhota

Monitoring of Roadside Stands of Industrial Cities and Towns (South-East of Ukraine)

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   This paper presents the survey data of urban roadside stands in the south-east of Ukraine. We investigated the species composition, analyzed the age structure of the plantings and also estimated the life condition of trees and shrubs. We registered 166 species and cultivars of tree plantings used for landscaping purposes. The richest species and form diversity was reported for the town of Khartsyzsk (68 species and 8 cultivars of trees, 34 species and 17 cultivars of shrubs). There are 34 native species (25 % of the total number of species) in urban plantings, 13 of them are found in all surveyed towns. The most part of tree species, dominated by fast-growing trees, belongs to the age group of 31-40 years. In general, ornamental plantings need rejuvenation, as well as introduction of new species into their species ranges.

Key words: trees, shrubs, age, viability.


44.

Rimanta Vainoriene

Features of Green Foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.) as a Model Plant and Distribution in Agrocenosis and Urban Environment

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   The paper presents green foxtail (Setaria viridis) - annual plant in Poaceae family, which possesses broad biological and ecological properties. Here we discuss green foxtail significance for urban phytocenosis, distribution in Lithuania and its use as a model plant in modern research. The spread of the green foxtail was analyzed using field research data, examples from herbariums and data available from segetal flora monitoring in Lithuania. The results show that S. viridis is widely spread in whole Lithuania, however it is more common in southern and eastern parts of the country. Populations are concentrated around agro-ecosystem and in urbanized territories. During field research on 17 populations out of 33 were found in urban ecosystem around railway stations, windmills.

Key words: Setaria viridis, green foxtail, model species, urban ecosystem, geographic distribution.


45.

Judita Varkulevichiene

The Diversity of Medicinal Plant Species Grown in the Greenhouse of Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   Plants having medicinal properties have been collecting in the conservatory of Kaunas Botanical Garden of VMU since 1923. Based on the studies carried out in 2007-2013 and on observational data the collection of medicinal plants grown in the conservatory was estimated. 113 species of plants from 53 families are grown in this collection-exposition. The most numerous family is Asparagaceaee - 10 species, average - 10 families have 4 species (Asphodelaceae, Arecaceae, Cactaceae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Passifloraceae), and 15 families at least have 1 species (Ginkgoaceae, Orchidaceae). 50 species of them are threatened with extinction, the species are protected, propagated and distributed to the public.

Key words: conservatory, medicinal plants, systematic evaluation.


46.

Egidijus Vidrinskas, Steponas Deveikis

Turkey Oak (Quercus cerris L.) in Šilute Park in Lithuania

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   European turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.), whose natural habitat includes Central and Southern Europe, are quite rare tree in Lithuanian greenery. Lithuanian "Dendrology" (1963; 1973) describes one turkey oak tree specimen found in Šilute Park, but this tree during cold winter in 1979-1980 froze and was cut down. In the spring of 1993, seven turkey oak seedlings were planted in Šilute Park, five trees of which (2015-2016) are growing in Šilute. This article discusses the following aspects of the Šilute's turkey oaks growing conditions and biometric data.

Key words: European turkey oak, Quercus cerris L., Šilute Park, Hugo Scheu (1845-1937).


47.

Aija Ziemeļniece

Genesis of the Cultural Historical Landscape Space of Zemgale

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   The development of the cultural landscape and urban construction space, which belongs to the basin of Lielupe of the region of Zemgale, has been influenced over the centuries by political and economic aspects that during the last 200 years have greatly changed forest areas, the structure, scale and functional value of agricultural lands and cultural historical building structure.

Agricultural management intensity in the 19th century and in the first part of the 20th century radically differed from the load intensity developed from the 70s of the 20th century reached with the rapid wave of rural collectivization, industrialization and modernization. It is related not only to the changes of the landscape space scale, but also to the agrochemical, drainage and wind load or soil erosion level increase. With the development of the rural economical turnover, the intensity increases the same way in the formation of urban production areas, in the development of streets network and new residential blocks. In turn, this brings up new requirements for the attraction of social comfort and ecological level in the urban environment. As one of these criteria are development possibilities for the city's green areas - wood parks, squares and gardens.

Key words: Urban landscape space, cultural historical landscape, synthesis, aesthetic quality, cultural heritage, transformation process.


48.

Jonas Žukas

Problematics of an Artwork Integration into Public Spaces

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   Research on integration problematic of artworks into the public spaces reveals importance to establish interrelated system ecology, between social groups and contemporary cultural influences. The aim of an article is to explore the complexity of a field, identify the problem area and interests involved, to highlight the possibilities of an action within a human environment to achieve positive implications to people well-being, local economy, and social cohesion. Subject related ideas are analyzed to determine the best strategies to define opportunities for the integration of art into public spaces and enabling social interaction optimization.

Key words: public art, urban ecology, contemporary society, cultural integration, communities.