Scientifc Journal of Klaipeda State College

FORMATION OF URBAN GREEN AREAS (2017 1 (14))

ISSN  1822-9778 print / ISSN 2029-4549 online


   



Articles:



1.

Laima Česonienė, Sigita, Bogačiovienė, Audrius Sigitas Maruška,

Mantas Stankevičius, Remigijus Daubaras


Investigation of Volatiles Compounds in Berries of Actinidia kolomikta

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     Actinidia kolomikta (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim.) is characteristic by berries which accumulate large amounts of biologically active chemical compounds. Aim of this study was to determine amounts of volatile compounds in berries of the Lithuanian genotypes of A. kolomikta. Major volatile compounds and important odorants have been identified. It was determined the Lithuanian cultivars 'Landė' and 'Lankė' were characteristic by the largest amount of volatiles and four specific compounds were detected in berries of the cultivar 'Lankė'.

   Key words: berry, genotype, volatile compound.

 


2.

Umberto Cocchi, Vaida Vaitkutė Eidimtienė

Experience and Sociocultural Aspects of Using QR code in Green Areas

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     QR code or quick response code, or matrix code, is the information storage system, used for different purposes since 1994. The code contains information (text, digits, internet links, any other information), which is read by using QR scanners or mobile phones. Changing needs of the society and developing technologies determined the emergence of QR codes formats. However, for the day being the code under discussion is dominating by the popularity of its use (identification of goods, information provided on notice boards, leaflets, business cards, advertising brochures, information stands). One of a more interesting ways is encountered in green areas of cities, which can be of different kind: educational, recreational, artistic. The article deals with the ways of using QR (quick response code) in green areas and introduces the research data.

   Key words:QR code, green areas, socio-culture, education, recreation.

 


3.

Steponas Deveikis

Creation of Nature in City - the Study of the Urban Development of the Sempione Park and Other Green Areas in Milan, Italy

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    This article analyses and provides a review of the development of Sempione Park (it. Parco Sempione), also other green spaces in Milan, Italy. The experience of public parks development and its consistent patterns are highlighted - to acknowledge these is important for the further development of urban greenery in Lithuania.

   Key words: city park, city greenery, Sempione Park, Milan, Italy.

 


4.

Konrad Dobrowolski

Park's Moat Revitalization in Brzeg

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     During the cultural revolution, in late 90th of XX century, in post-communist Poland the development of cultural facilities stopped. The degradation process of large spatial objects began. Failed privatizations showed that participants of the investment processes repeatedly did not have time to react to the work of nature in degradation context. The scale of biodegradable large spatial outdoor objects, remaining in constant contact with nature, brings the inevitability of vanishing. 

   In the case of Brzeg's city amphitheater, to collapse of this region famous cultural area, influenced democratic change of the XX century end.

   The after Millenium effect, changes in the economy and market, style of lives, easiness of access to the multichannel TV and Internet media made, that residents of the Brzeg not found the energy and time to visit this culture-built place. The consequence of this situation was the complete degradation of the existing city's amphitheater.

   The keynote of the presented in this work project was to break with this awareness and introduce the solution. Putting land into the hands of greenery, the idea is to create complex of the buildings staying in compliance with the nature laws and throwing new light on objects with this function in new Polish reality.

   Key words: transformation, revitalization of the cultural object, city of Brzeg, city amphitheater, nature biodegradation.

 


5.

Konrad Dobrowolski

River in the City Nysa - Divided or Combined?

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    The state of the master zones planning in most of the Polish cities leaves much to be requested. It does not exist from both directions - from the perspective of rational grounds management and the accompanying its infrastructure and to create a friendly environment for the work, leisure and residence, characteristic of dense social environment of today urban organisms. It is easy to observe processes often chaotic spreading suburban areas with parallel progressive the resulting degradation of the downtown and suburbs. Very often this situation is deepening in cities located on the river.

   Key words: Nysa, revitalization of the public spaces, river in the cities, social activities, chaos of urban and architectural.

 


6.

Konrad Dobrowolski

Revitalization of Post-mining Excavations at the Diving Center in Sulejów

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     The aim of this article is searching for the answers to issues of re-use of the inoperative post-mining excavations, which, at the time of their activity gave as a result of its production - important building material, and work for the immigrant population. It made them main actors in process of creation of the city. Proposed in this study conception of Diving Center building, in the context of a revitalization of the former Lime Industry Department in Sulejów. Municipality Sulejów characterized by the presence of numerous minerals, inbetween: sand, gravel, limestone and marl.

   Economic history of the city is closely connected with the mining of raw materials. The town became famous for the production of lime, which was initially artisan way fired.

   In the second half of the nineteenth century, Sulejów became an important center for the lime industry, and in 1901 started its activity Limestone Mine Sulejów, which also specialized in the production of lime-kilns.

   Old mine, today in the form of a deep stone-pit, filled with crystal clear water, due to its natural attractiveness, become as a natural recreation's attraction, often visited by divers and anglers, as well as walkers.

   The area is rich in resurgent fauna and flora, and their habitats are numerous kinds of birds and fish, as well as beavers, deers and hares. One of the excavations, commonly known as "Lime", due to the direct neighborhood of the Pilica Valley and Sulejów National Nature Park areas were protected by the nationwide Natura 2000 program.

   Key words: transformation, revitalization of the stone-pit, city of Sulejów,  the National Nature Sulejów Park.

 


7.

Elpitiforov Evgenij Nikolaevich

Anatomical Reaction of Needles of Different Ages

of Pinus L. to Biotic Factors

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    The purpose of the article is to examine the features of the anatomical and structural reactions of needles to factors of a biotic nature. The paper proposes experience of studying the needles of different-aged plants of the genus Pinus, parameters for comparing the anatomy of healthy and damaged needles for two- coniferous and five-coniferous. Also the basic anatomical needle reaction to the factors of biotic nature and photographic material are presented. The limiting groups of pests-entomophages and causative agents of diseases in the samples were identified. The technique of work with the fixed material, as well as tools and equipment are described. The differences in the reactions of one-year-old needles of pines of different ages are also indicated in the article.

   Key words: annual needles, anatomical reaction, Pinus L., pine, biotic factors.

 


8.

Dorota Gawryluk, Olga Bancerowa

Contemporary Landscape and the Historical Arrangement of Localities Rebuilt in Late 18th Century on the Initiative of Antoni Tyzenhauz

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    Antoni Tyzenhauz's (Lithuanian treasurer from times of Stanisław Augusta and the Hrodna district administrator) activity at the end of the 18th century was aimed at economic activation of north-eastern part of Rzeczpospolita. About 50 manufactories were made near Hrodna on his initiative. Important effect of Tyzenhauz's activity was also change of spatial form of chosen towns (Krynki, Dąbrowa Białostocka, Sokółka, Suchowola, Janów, Nowy Dwór, Lipsk, Jeleniewo, and Krasnopol). Small towns had regular plans with geometrical urban planning composition. Elements of spatial culture from the end of 18th century survived apart of their difficult history. They are important features of towns' contemporary identity now. The article is devoted to legibility of the historical composition from the end of the 18th century in the contemporary townscape of Krynki, Dąbrowa Białostocka i Sokółka.

   Key words: Tyzenhauz's towns, townscape.

 


9.

Indrė Gražulevičiūtė-Vileniškė, Jurga Vitkuvienė

Aesthetic Expression of Ecological Function in Urban Landscape Architecture: Some Theoretical and Practical Aspects

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     The article is devoted to the topic of urban nature as the object of landscape architecture and the links between the ecology and aesthetics in sustainable urban landscape architecture. The first section of the text presents the most widely known landscape aesthetics theories and discusses the possibilities to apply them in designing landscapes in urban environment. The theoretical proposals of aesthetic expression of ecological function in urban environment developed by the American researcher and landscape architect J. I. N Nassauer are analyzed in detail; these proposals are illustrated with the examples of existing green urban spaces. The second part of the text presents the practical recommendation for urban landscape architecture based on the concepts by J. I. Nassauer. The results of the research can be useful for both the further analysis of theoretical issues of expression and development of urban nature and for the practice of landscape architecture in searching the sustainable solutions for urban spaces.

   Key words: urban nature, urban landscape architecture, ecology, ecosystem, aesthetics.

 


10.

Petras Grecevičius, Jonas Abromas,

Dovilė Kalkė, Jonas Genys, Jelena Lebedeva


Planning Tradition of Korean Historical Gardens and Parks.

Between China and Japan

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     Historical gardens and parks - it is just one of the most subtle manifestations of eastern cultures in terms of aesthetics, philosophy and lifestyle. Korean concept of the garden feature is monosemantic - to improve the quality of life, help to feel the balance between the spiritual and material life, to experience harmony. On 4 - 14th November of 2016, one of the authors Petras Grecevičius, professor of Klaipeda University had an internship in Seoul, Korea, at the invitation of the Department of Landscape Architecture of the Seoul National University. During the internship there were carried out 5 studies on historic classic gardens and other landscape architecture objects, analyzed the structure of space, bio architectural constructions, plant composition features, the ratio of plants to building architecture. It was searched for links with the Chinese and Japanese historical gardens - parks.This article contains plant selection, composition trends, the plant composition peculiarities of historical and contemporary urban space compositions. The main attention was paid to description of the most important and used plant species, presented generalizations, which can be useful not only for developers of  Korean gardens in the Baltic region, but also arranging plants in Lithuanian parks, farms, and urban spaces.

   Keywords: Korean garden, Buddhism, plants, cultural heritage, landscape.

 


11.

L. P. Ishchuk

Water-Holding Capacity of Leaves of Species Salix L.

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate


    On the basis of experimental laboratory research established an aqueous leaf species of the genus Salix mode. The content of the total water, water scarcity and to wilt after the water saturation, water-holding capacity of leaves during the day and relative turgorestsentnost of leaves and water absorption capacity after withering.

   Key words: Salix L., leaves, water scarcity, water-holding capacity, turgorestsentnost.

 


12.

Jonas Jakaitis, Jonas Žukas

Research Proposition for Aesthetic and Functional Harmonization

of the Material Environment

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   The main goal of an article is to reveal problem based on practical applications to integrate the variety of concepts for developing urban structures on the macro level, and also, creating a material environment design on the local level. To achieve environmental sustainability it is important to explore the interaction between integrated management of urban architecture policy issues and development of the material environment design. Coexistence and harmony, and innovative research methods become important factors. Phenomenological philosophy methods can be an effective and meaningful tool analyzing issues of coexistence and harmony within society, culture, city spatial structure and material environment design.

   Key words: urban space, harmony of the material environment and design, quality of city life.

 


13.

Aurelija Jankauskaitė, Jonas Abromas

The Spatial Analysis of J. Basanavičius Street in Palanga Town

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    Vytautas street and its perpendicular J. Basanavičius Street began to definitively dominate in the structure of XX century in Palanga. The urban structural model transforms from "linear" to a "T" shaped pattern (Vyšniūnas, Cirtautas and others, 2008). This process was greatly influenced by the Sea bridge, which attracts visitors to perform a kind of ritual (watch sunsets) and admire the landscape. J. Basanavičius street transformed from a sandy road leading to the sea with several Tyszkiewicz built villas near by, to a busy pedestrian street, with different building morphotypes.

   The article analyzes the architectural and natural changes of J. Basanavičius street, various factors that reduce the emotional impact of the street.

   Key words: J. Basanavičius Street, emotional impact, sea bridge, spatial - composition problems.

 


14.

Asta Klimienė, Rita Goliakovienė

The Situation of Green Areas of Towns in Klaipėda District and

Their Planting Trend

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     In the Klaipeda district urban areas are about 44 percent. In the work greenery situation of 6 biggest towns was analysed. The plant assortment in all places was very minor, only a few species of trees and scrubs, dominated Tilia, Picea in all places, a few of perennial flowers, gardens and hedges. The plants were planting before the War II or in a soviet time, they are old, in Dituva planting heritage is from collective gardens' style. In the towns, there are not feeling of unique greenery conception, the flower gardens are located in the centres, dominate seasonal, annual plants. Esthetical economical gardening, when priority is on the overall landscape, style of houses, streets and communication system, never was chosen. In the greenery the annual plants and scrubs comprised a very small part.

   Key words: greenery, urban areas, assortment.

 


15.

Jurga Kučinskienė, Diana Baravykaitė

Experiences Areas of Landscape Design Features: Taste Sense

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate


    Humans perceive the environment at different receptors, which is eyes (sight), the mouth (feeling taste), ears (hearing), the fingers (touching). But there are a lot of objects around us which with appropriate properties in more detail is possible to understand and evaluate by tasting (taste), or by the smell of "turning on" taste receptors. Tasting person experiencing the same sensations that cause certain feelings, memories, and associations. The article reviews the taste aspects, analyzing the taste sensory perception of woody parts of the plant and related sensations (feelings) variety. There are discussing the plants with variety of taste sensations usability in the planning of experience landscape areas.

   Key words:experiences area,tastesense, landscape.

 


16.

Jurga Kučinskienė, Lina Pridotkienė, Vida Gerikienė,

Regina Repšienė, Diana Baravykaitė


Roundabouts Formation: the Importance of Ideas and Diversity

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    Roundabouts greatly contributed to the fact that our country's roads became safer for pedestrian and cyclist, and more convenient for those sitting at the steering wheel. Traffic safety has become a priority in the activities of Lithuanian roadbuilders and acquires new contours. They are often become challenge, raise issues, but intelligent innovation is spreading and already yielding results. Nevertheless, their appearance, and the idea of their formation have not yet reached our roundabouts.

   The article deals with the function of roundabouts, the importance of ideas in shaping them, the diversity, and possibilities to apply them.

   Key words: roundabouts, idea, aesthetics.

 


17.

Jūratė Liebuvienė, Alvita Šileikienė

Youth Attitude to Healthy and Sustainable Environment

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    The greatest human assets - a healthy and sustainable environment, uncontaminated nature. This is a prerequisite for the survival of mankind and its existence. Our future depends on how we protect the environment, use resources, cherish and conserve the environment. This paper presents the young people approach to a healthy and sustainable environment. The article analyzes the approach to waste collection and processing, and the problems arising from the waste sorting. There were interviewed 1127  respondents (up to 25 years old age) studying at Klaipeda State University of Applied Sciences.

   Key words: a healthy and sustainable environment, household waste, wastes sorting.

 


18.

Vanda Lukoševičiūtė, Antanina Stankevičienė

The Collection of Energy Plants at Kaunas Botanical Garden of

Vytautas Magnus University: Variety and State

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    The article gives an overview of introduction studies of energy plants grown at the collection at Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University: plant variety and state. In 2016, the collecection contained 72 samples of plants (41 genus, 54 species, 41 cultivars, 1 varietes, 3 hybrids). These plants are grown at separate areas according to their life forms: woody plants, perennial herbaous plants, annual (biennial) plants and introducated plants. The valuation of the state of energy plants in the collection indicated mildew to be most frequently detected disease (8.1 %, injured 6 species plants), pest injuries 1.4 % plants (1 species). Non-infectious diseases are identified (detected: necrosis, dry branches), agents of fungal diseases (8 genus, 11 species), pests (2 genus and species).

   Key words: collection of energy plants, variety, state, Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University.

 


19.

Asta Malakauskienė

The Response of Larch (Larix L.) Vegetation Period to Climate Warming

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate


    The aim of this study was to estimate the dynamics of vegetation period of 6 introduced larch species, to evaluate its changes, considering the hardiness zones of natural habitats of these species. Vegetation period of Larix decidua during 1957-2016 period prolonged by 17 days, L. kaempferi - 16 days, L. laricina - 29 days, and L. sibirica - 40 days, vegetation period of both L. x marschlinsii and L. sukaczewii species during 1973-2016 period prolonged by 23 days. Larch species introduced from colder hardiness zones reacted stronger to climate warming. The decorativeness of larch in Lithuania lasts longer as climate gets warmer.

   Key words: larch, phenophase, vegetation period, climate warming, hardiness zone.

 


20.

Vida Motiekaitytė, Zenonas Venckus

Main Wild Medicinal Plant Species in Lithuania

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   The number of wild medicinal plant species in Lithuania was ascertained on data published in 21 publications in period 1927-2015 in Lithuania. On background of these publications the list of wild medicinal plant species was prepared regarding to modern plant taxonomy data and main species of these plants most frequently mentioned by Lithuanian authors were distinguished. Relation between main medicinal plant species most and herb assortment in pharmacies in Lithuania was stated.

   Key words: wild plants, medicinal plants, herb assortment.

 


21.

Rita Nekrošienė, Liuda Razmuvienė

Mint (Mentha L.) - Promising Plant in Green Areas

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

    There are analyzed varieties of mint (Mentha L.) species, their morphological characteristics, growing viability in green areas. Investigations were carried out in "Smell Garden", that are established in medicinal-aromatic plant division at the Klaipeda University Botanical Garden. It was found that dwarf mint species and cultivars are suitable for afforestation in humidity, shady places, and mints with colorful leaves, nice blooming are invaluable in compositions with various plants not only in the garden of aromatic plants, but also in other greenery.

   Key words: Mentha, species, cultivar, composition, green area.

 


22.

Nijolė Piekienė, Jonas Abromas

Complex Planning Strategy of the Landscape in State Parks of Lithuania

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate


     The article actualizes the problem of landscape planning. For the problem analysis the concepts of state park, state parks' planning news are described, the landscape planning strategy is determined by taking into account the experience of foreign countries. Landscape planning, as described by landscape policies, is strategic and spatial planning expressing and validating the future-oriented actions to preserve, enhance, restore or create the landscapes (Lithuania's.., 2004). Landscape planning evolution in Lithuania is very dynamic. Each landscape planning stage is associated with social, economic and political conditions. The work is relevant in determining the concept of landscape forming integrated planning, the challenges of its execution, issues, the expertise of the planning participants, needs, opportunities, planning measures for relationships with other life activities.

   Key words: State park, landscape planning, planning strategy.

 


23.

Kamil Rawski

Accessibility of the Urban Green Areas for People with Disabilities on the Example of Planty Park in Białystok, Poland

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

  ŠiIn this work has been presented the issue of planning the accessibility of urban green areas for people with disabilities, in particular for people moving on wheelchairs and blind. Problematic aspects are discussed on example of analysis of Planty Park in Białystok (Poland) in terms of the accessibility of space for such people. There are collected a number of design guidelines and on their basis there are conducted field studies. As a result there are prepared a map showing the accessibility of the park for the disabled. Carried out analysis is discussed and the author searches for the most problematic areas to propose some solutions for the issues.

   Key words: designing for disabilities, urban green areas, universal design.

 


24.

Loreta Semaškienė, Vidmantas Verbyla

Assessment of Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) Growth in Lithuanian Conditions

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   In Lithuania naturally grow only 91 species of woody plants, including 25 species of trees. Current (beginning of the 21st century) Lithuanian climatic conditions are favorable for the spreading of southern tree species (Navasaitis et al 2003). One of the greatest contemporary threats to biodiversity is the spreading of alien species, thus their introduction must be scientifically controlled. For the establishment of special plantations, research of alien species in our climatic conditions is considered perspective, especially the studies of those species which do not cause any competition to native tree species.

   Growth studies of Lodgepole and Scots pine offspring were carried out in three pilot plantations. Three most important productivity indicators of tree height, diameter and apical bud dominance were assessed. For an objective assessment of Lodgepole pine viability and potential to grow in Lithuanian conditions, its growth was compared with the growth of offspring of the best Lithuanian Scots pine and native populations growing in the same plantations.

   Key words: native species, Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), pilot plantations, offspring, population.

 


25.

Magdalena Siemaszko, Marcin Zych

Urban Ecosystems - a Place for Pollinators?

A Mini-review and Social Implications

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   The world is facing a great ecological crisis: the global pollinators loss. Hence, there is an urgent need for new conservation arenas including urban environments that might act as attractive habitats for bees and other pollinators. We explore the studies on the urban bee populations and their requirements to assess the conditions that must be provided for effective conservation programmes. We argue that the green sites in the city can be designed in a sustainable way in order to support the basic ecological functions, offering high-quality food base and nesting sites. In addition to practical solutions based on detailed scientific findings, the needs of citizens must be taken into account and the social component of urban conservation should not be neglected.

   Key words: pollinators, conservation, ecosystem, bee populations.

 


26.

Svitlana Sytnyk, Viktoriia Lovynska, Mykola Kharytonov, Ludmila Katan, Mychaylo Gumentyk


Heavy Metals Accumulation in Wood Tissue of the Main Forest Forming Species in Northern Steppe of Ukraine

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

  The content of heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn) in wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) within the Northern Steppe of Ukraine was analyzed. A species specificity of heavy metal accumulation and dependence of their concentration on age of investigated wood breeds have been identified.

   Key words: Northern Steppe, Scots pine, black locust, heavy metal accumulation.

 


27.

Vilija Snieškienė, Gražina Žumbakienė, Stasė Dapkūnienė

The Description of Decorative, Medicinal Plants and Herbs in Exposition of Lithuanian Folk Museum in Samogitia

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   In present villages there are very few examples of Lithuanian traditional farmstead green plantings which grew before the war. In Lithuanian folk museum exposition not only buildings are rebuilt but also farmstead green plantings are restored. In 2016, the decorative, medicinal plants and herbs were studied in three ethnographical farmsteads in Samogitia. Biological variety was detected and compared with data in literature how much they conform the assortment of traditional farmstead plants. In Gintališkės, Įpilties and Darbėnai farmsteads, 46 species of decorative, medicinal plants and herbs are being grown. These local flora plants and the introduced plants from couple hundred years ago were grown in Samogitian farmsteads long time ago.

   Key words: Samogitia (Žemaitija), dekorative plants, medicinal plants.

 


28.

Antanina Stankevičienė, Jolanta Šabūnaitė

The Introduction of Oak Genus (Quercus L.) Plants in

Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

     The article gives an overview of introduction studies of Quercus L. at Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University: plant variety and state. 27 taxa plants were described in 2016: 14 species, 13 cultivars and 92 clones of the genus Quercus in the collection. The time of the purchase of plants is presented in this article. Intensity of fungal diseases agents (Erysiphe alphitoides) is described. This is frequent disturbance of oaks in Lithuania, disease touched Quercus robur, its clones and cultivars 'Argenteomarginata', 'Zeeland' (1-4 scores). The article describes rarely found sooty mould, Septoria quercicola, Apiognomonioa quercina fungal diseases. There were found 3 species pests (1 score): Altica quercetorum, Tortrix viridana, Tuberculatus quercus. Young oaks were damaged by non-infectious diseases (1-4 points): dry branches, necrosis, defoliation, dechromation.

   Key words: Quercus L., collection, state, Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University.



29.

Suslova Ye.P.

Populus bolleana Lanche in Urban Plantations of

Industrial Towns in Southeast Ukraine

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   This paper presents data of the survey of Populus bolleana Lanche in urban plantations  of industrial cities in the south east Ukraine. The study was focused on representation of this species in different structural and functional types of stands (parkland, mini-parks and roadside stands), age, viability, trunk morphometric parameters of Bolle's poplar trees. The species representation in plantations ranges from 0.6 % in parks to 6 % in roadside stands. Bolle's poplar trees found in urban plantations of investigated cities are aged 10 to 50 years. It is specified that with Populus bolleana in the age of 30 years old there appear the signs of aging and reduction of viability. In the course of investigation we came to the conclusion that the trees of Populus bolleana over the age of 40 in roadside plantings and 50 in parkland should be replaced by young plantlets.

   Key words: urban dendroflora, viability, age category, morphometric parameters.



30.

Andreas Thon, Alexander Peters, M. H. Edu.

Building Information Modeling (BIM) - A New Approach in

Landscape Architecture

Pilnas straipsnis pdf formate

   Building Information Modeling (BIM) is not a software but a method of spatial planning; it offers a new planning system for landscape architecture. While the lifecycle of a construction is incorporated, the interaction between sectoral planning, such as architecture, underground engineering, planning of escape ways and facility managing can be exchanged easily by using standardized data formats. These Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) are open standards to describe properties of building models. Following abstract describes possible strategies to implement BIM in landscape architecture.

   Key words: planning process, BIM, IFC, entire-life-cycle, landscape architecture.